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54
Toeplitz compressed sensing matrices with applications to sparse channel estimation
, 2010
"... Compressed sensing (CS) has recently emerged as a powerful signal acquisition paradigm. In essence, CS enables the recovery of highdimensional sparse signals from relatively few linear observations in the form of projections onto a collection of test vectors. Existing results show that if the entri ..."
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Cited by 93 (12 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) has recently emerged as a powerful signal acquisition paradigm. In essence, CS enables the recovery of highdimensional sparse signals from relatively few linear observations in the form of projections onto a collection of test vectors. Existing results show that if the entries of the test vectors are independent realizations of certain zeromean random variables, then with high probability the unknown signals can be recovered by solving a tractable convex optimization. This work extends CS theory to settings where the entries of the test vectors exhibit structured statistical dependencies. It follows that CS can be effectively utilized in linear, timeinvariant system identification problems provided the impulse response of the system is (approximately or exactly) sparse. An immediate application is in wireless multipath channel estimation. It is shown here that timedomain probing of a multipath channel with a random binary sequence, along with utilization of CS reconstruction techniques, can provide significant improvements in estimation accuracy compared to traditional leastsquares based linear channel estimation strategies. Abstract extensions of the main results are also discussed, where the theory of equitable graph coloring is employed to establish the utility of CS in settings where the test vectors exhibit more general statistical dependencies.
Compressed Channel Sensing: A New Approach to Estimating Sparse Multipath Channels
"... Highrate data communication over a multipath wireless channel often requires that the channel response be known at the receiver. Trainingbased methods, which probe the channel in time, frequency, and space with known signals and reconstruct the channel response from the output signals, are most co ..."
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Cited by 87 (9 self)
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Highrate data communication over a multipath wireless channel often requires that the channel response be known at the receiver. Trainingbased methods, which probe the channel in time, frequency, and space with known signals and reconstruct the channel response from the output signals, are most commonly used to accomplish this task. Traditional trainingbased channel estimation methods, typically comprising of linear reconstruction techniques, are known to be optimal for rich multipath channels. However, physical arguments and growing experimental evidence suggest that many wireless channels encountered in practice tend to exhibit a sparse multipath structure that gets pronounced as the signal space dimension gets large (e.g., due to large bandwidth or large number of antennas). In this paper, we formalize the notion of multipath sparsity and present a new approach to estimating sparse (or effectively sparse) multipath channels that is based on some of the recent advances in the theory of compressed sensing. In particular, it is shown in the paper that the proposed approach, which is termed as compressed channel sensing, can potentially achieve a target reconstruction error using far less energy and, in many instances, latency and bandwidth than that dictated by the traditional leastsquaresbased training methods.
Sensitivity to basis mismatch of compressed sensing,” preprint
, 2009
"... Abstract—The theory of compressed sensing suggests that successful inversion of an image of the physical world (e.g., a radar/sonar return or a sensor array snapshot vector) for the source modes and amplitudes can be achieved at measurement dimensions far lower than what might be expected from the c ..."
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Cited by 86 (8 self)
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Abstract—The theory of compressed sensing suggests that successful inversion of an image of the physical world (e.g., a radar/sonar return or a sensor array snapshot vector) for the source modes and amplitudes can be achieved at measurement dimensions far lower than what might be expected from the classical theories of spectrum or modal analysis, provided that the image is sparse in an apriori known basis. For imaging problems in passive and active radar and sonar, this basis is usually taken to be a DFT basis. The compressed sensing measurements are then inverted using an ℓ1minimization principle (basis pursuit) for the nonzero source amplitudes. This seems to make compressed sensing an ideal image inversion principle for high resolution modal analysis. However, in reality no physical field is sparse in the DFT basis or in an apriori known basis. In fact the main goal in image inversion is to identify the modal structure. No matter how finely we grid the parameter space the sources may not lie in the center of the grid cells and there is always mismatch between the assumed and the actual bases for sparsity. In this paper, we study the sensitivity of basis pursuit to mismatch between the assumed and the actual sparsity bases and compare the performance of basis pursuit with that of classical image inversion. Our mathematical analysis and numerical examples show that the performance of basis pursuit degrades considerably in the presence of mismatch, and they suggest that the use of compressed sensing as a modal analysis principle requires more consideration and refinement, at least for the problem sizes common to radar/sonar. I.
Sparse Channel Estimation for Multicarrier Underwater Acoustic Communication: From Subspace Methods to Compressed Sensing
"... Abstract—In this paper, we present various channel estimators that exploit the channel sparsity in a multicarrier underwater acoustic system, including subspace algorithms from the array precessing literature, namely rootMUSIC and ESPRIT, and recent compressed sensing algorithms in form of Orthogon ..."
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Cited by 73 (33 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we present various channel estimators that exploit the channel sparsity in a multicarrier underwater acoustic system, including subspace algorithms from the array precessing literature, namely rootMUSIC and ESPRIT, and recent compressed sensing algorithms in form of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Basis Pursuit (BP). Numerical simulation and experimental data of an OFDM blockbyblock receiver are used to evaluate the proposed algorithms in comparison to the conventional leastsquares (LS) channel estimator. We observe that subspace methods can tolerate small to moderate Doppler effects, and outperform the LS approach when the channel is indeed sparse. On the other hand, compressed sensing algorithms uniformly outperform the LS and subspace methods. Coupled with a channel equalizer mitigating intercarrier interference, the compressed sensing algorithms can handle channels with significant Doppler spread.
Circulant and Toeplitz Matrices in Compressed Sensing
"... Compressed sensing seeks to recover a sparse vector from a small number of linear and nonadaptive measurements. While most work so far focuses on Gaussian or Bernoulli random measurements we investigate the use of partial random circulant and Toeplitz matrices in connection with recovery by ℓ1mini ..."
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Cited by 54 (10 self)
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Compressed sensing seeks to recover a sparse vector from a small number of linear and nonadaptive measurements. While most work so far focuses on Gaussian or Bernoulli random measurements we investigate the use of partial random circulant and Toeplitz matrices in connection with recovery by ℓ1minization. In contrast to recent work in this direction we allow the use of an arbitrary subset of rows of a circulant and Toeplitz matrix. Our recovery result predicts that the necessary number of measurements to ensure sparse reconstruction by ℓ1minimization with random partial circulant or Toeplitz matrices scales linearly in the sparsity up to a logfactor in the ambient dimension. This represents a significant improvement over previous recovery results for such matrices. As a main tool for the proofs we use a new version of the noncommutative Khintchine inequality.
Compressive Estimation of Doubly Selective Channels: Exploiting Channel Sparsity to Improve Spectral Efficiency in Multicarrier Transmissions
"... We consider the estimation of doubly selective wireless channels within pulseshaping multicarrier systems (which include OFDM systems as a special case). A pilotassisted channel estimation technique using the methodology of compressed sensing (CS) is proposed. By exploiting a channel’s delayDopple ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We consider the estimation of doubly selective wireless channels within pulseshaping multicarrier systems (which include OFDM systems as a special case). A pilotassisted channel estimation technique using the methodology of compressed sensing (CS) is proposed. By exploiting a channel’s delayDoppler sparsity, CSbased channel estimation allows an increase in spectral efficiency through a reduction of the number of pilot symbols that have to be transmitted. We also present an extension of our basic channel estimator that employs a sparsityimproving basis expansion. We propose a framework for optimizing the basis and an iterative approximate basis optimization algorithm. Simulation results using three different CS recovery algorithms demonstrate significant performance gains (in terms of improved estimation accuracy or reduction of the number of pilots) relative to conventional leastsquares estimation, as well as substantial advantages of using an optimized basis.
Why Gabor frames? Two fundamental measures of coherence and their role in model selection
 J. Commun. Netw
, 2010
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Sparse Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks using Compressive Sensing
"... Abstract — Compressive sensing is a revolutionary idea proposed recently to achieve much lower sampling rate for sparse signals. For large wireless sensor networks, the events are relatively sparse compared with the number of sources. Because of deployment cost, the number of sensors is limited, and ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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Abstract — Compressive sensing is a revolutionary idea proposed recently to achieve much lower sampling rate for sparse signals. For large wireless sensor networks, the events are relatively sparse compared with the number of sources. Because of deployment cost, the number of sensors is limited, and due to energy constraint, not all the sensors are turned on all the time. In this paper, the first contribution is to formulate the problem for sparse event detection in wireless sensor networks as a compressive sensing problem. The number of (wakeup) sensors can be greatly reduced to the similar level of the number of sparse events, which is much smaller than the total number of sources. Second, we suppose the event has the binary nature, and employ the Bayesian detection using this prior information. Finally, we analyze the performance of the compressive sensing algorithms under the Gaussian noise. From the simulation results, we show that the sampling rate can reduce to 25 % without sacrificing performance. With further decreasing the sampling rate, the performance is gradually reduced until 10 % of sampling rate. Our proposed detection algorithm has much better performance than the l1magic algorithm proposed in the literature. I.
Learning sparse doublyselective channels
 in Proc. of Allerton Conf. on Communications, Control and Computing
, 2008
"... Abstract—Coherent data communication over doublyselective channels requires that the channel response be known at the receiver. Trainingbased schemes, which involve probing of the channel with known signaling waveforms and processing of the corresponding channel output to estimate the channel para ..."
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Cited by 23 (8 self)
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Abstract—Coherent data communication over doublyselective channels requires that the channel response be known at the receiver. Trainingbased schemes, which involve probing of the channel with known signaling waveforms and processing of the corresponding channel output to estimate the channel parameters, are commonly employed to learn the channel response in practice. Conventional trainingbased methods, often comprising of linear least squares channel estimators, are known to be optimal under the assumption of rich multipath channels. Numerous measurement campaigns have shown, however, that physical multipath channels tend to exhibit a sparse structure at high signal space dimension (timebandwidth product), and can be characterized with significantly fewer parameters compared to the maximum number dictated by the delayDoppler spread of the channel. In this paper, it is established that traditional trainingbased channel learning techniques are illsuited to fully exploiting the inherent lowdimensionality of sparse channels. In contrast, key ideas from the emerging theory of compressed sensing are leveraged to propose sparse channel learning methods for both singlecarrier and multicarrier probing waveforms that employ reconstruction algorithms based on convex/linear programming. In particular, it is shown that the performance of the proposed schemes come within a logarithmic factor of that of an ideal channel estimator, leading to significant reductions in the training energy and the loss in spectral efficiency associated with conventional trainingbased methods. I.
Dense error correction via ℓ1 minimization
, 2009
"... This paper studies the problem of recovering a nonnegative sparse signal x ∈ Rn from highly corrupted linear measurements y = Ax + e ∈ Rm, where e is an unknown error vector whose nonzero entries may be unbounded. Motivated by an observation from face recognition in computer vision, this paper prov ..."
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Cited by 21 (5 self)
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This paper studies the problem of recovering a nonnegative sparse signal x ∈ Rn from highly corrupted linear measurements y = Ax + e ∈ Rm, where e is an unknown error vector whose nonzero entries may be unbounded. Motivated by an observation from face recognition in computer vision, this paper proves that for highly correlated (and possibly overcomplete) dictionaries A, any nonnegative, sufficiently sparse signal x can be recovered by solving an ℓ1minimization problem: min ‖x‖1 + ‖e‖1 subject to y = Ax + e. More precisely, if the fraction ρ of errors is bounded away from one and the support of x grows sublinearly in the dimension m of the observation, then as m goes to infinity, the above ℓ1minimization succeeds for all signals x and almost all signandsupport patterns of e. This result suggests that accurate recovery of sparse signals is possible and computationally feasible even with nearly 100 % of the observations corrupted. The proof relies on a careful characterization of the faces of a convex polytope spanned together by the standard crosspolytope and a set of iid Gaussian vectors with nonzero mean and small variance, which we call the “crossandbouquet ” model. Simulations and experimental results corroborate the findings, and suggest extensions to the result.