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Illiquidity and stock returns: crosssection and timeseries effects,
 Journal of Financial Markets
, 2002
"... Abstract This paper shows that over time, expected market illiquidity positively affects ex ante stock excess return, suggesting that expected stock excess return partly represents an illiquidity premium. This complements the crosssectional positive returnilliquidity relationship. Also, stock ret ..."
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Cited by 864 (9 self)
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Abstract This paper shows that over time, expected market illiquidity positively affects ex ante stock excess return, suggesting that expected stock excess return partly represents an illiquidity premium. This complements the crosssectional positive returnilliquidity relationship. Also, stock returns are negatively related over time to contemporaneous unexpected illiquidity. The illiquidity measure here is the average across stocks of the daily ratio of absolute stock return to dollar volume, which is easily obtained from daily stock data for long time series in most stock markets. Illiquidity affects more strongly small firm stocks, thus explaining time series variations in their premiums over time. r
Investing for the long run when returns are predictable
 Journal of Finance
, 2000
"... We examine how the evidence of predictability in asset returns affects optimal portfolio choice for investors with long horizons. Particular attention is paid to estimation risk, or uncertainty about the true values of model parameters. We find that even after incorporating parameter uncertainty, th ..."
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Cited by 444 (0 self)
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We examine how the evidence of predictability in asset returns affects optimal portfolio choice for investors with long horizons. Particular attention is paid to estimation risk, or uncertainty about the true values of model parameters. We find that even after incorporating parameter uncertainty, there is enough predictability in returns to make investors allocate substantially more to stocks, the longer their horizon. Moreover, the weak statistical significance of the evidence for predictability makes it important to take estimation risk into account; a longhorizon investor who ignores it may overallocate to stocks by a sizeable amount. ONE OF THE MORE STRIKING EMPIRICAL FINDINGS in recent financial research is the evidence of predictability in asset returns. 1 In this paper we examine the implications of this predictability for an investor seeking to make sensible portfolio allocation decisions. We approach this question from the perspective of horizon effects: Given the evidence of predictability in returns, should a longhorizon investor allocate his wealth differently from a shorthorizon investor? The motivation for thinking about the problem in these terms is the classic work of Samuelson ~1969! and Merton ~1969!. They show that if asset returns are i.i.d., an investor with power utility who rebalances his portfolio optimally should choose the same asset allocation, regardless of investment horizon. In light of the growing body of evidence that returns are predictable, the investor’s horizon may no longer be irrelevant. The extent to which the horizon does play a role serves as an interesting and convenient way of thinking about how predictability affects portfolio choice. Moreover, the results may shed light on the common but controversial advice that investors with long horizons should allocate more heavily to stocks. 2
Consumption, Aggregate Wealth, and Expected Stock Returns
 THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE • VOL. LVI, NO. 3 • JUNE 2001
, 2001
"... This paper studies the role of fluctuations in the aggregate consumption–wealth ratio for predicting stock returns. Using U.S. quarterly stock market data, we find that these fluctuations in the consumption–wealth ratio are strong predictors of both real stock returns and excess returns over a Treas ..."
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Cited by 321 (23 self)
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This paper studies the role of fluctuations in the aggregate consumption–wealth ratio for predicting stock returns. Using U.S. quarterly stock market data, we find that these fluctuations in the consumption–wealth ratio are strong predictors of both real stock returns and excess returns over a Treasury bill rate. We also find that this variable is a better forecaster of future returns at short and intermediate horizons than is the dividend yield, the dividend payout ratio, and several other popular forecasting variables. Why should the consumption–wealth ratio forecast asset returns? We show that a wide class of optimal models of consumer behavior imply that the log consumption–aggregate wealth ~human capital plus asset holdings! ratio summarizes expected returns on aggregate wealth, or the market portfolio. Although this ratio is not observable, we provide assumptions under which its important predictive components for future asset returns may be expressed in terms of observable variables, namely in terms of consumption, asset holdings and labor income. The framework implies that these variables are cointegrated, and
Investor Sentiment and the CrossSection of Stock Returns
, 2003
"... We examine how investor sentiment affects the crosssection of stock returns. Theory predicts that a broad wave of sentiment will disproportionately affect stocks whose valuations are highly subjective and are difficult to arbitrage. We test this prediction by studying how the crosssection of subse ..."
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Cited by 293 (9 self)
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We examine how investor sentiment affects the crosssection of stock returns. Theory predicts that a broad wave of sentiment will disproportionately affect stocks whose valuations are highly subjective and are difficult to arbitrage. We test this prediction by studying how the crosssection of subsequent stock returns varies with proxies for beginningofperiod investor sentiment. When sentiment is low, subsequent returns are relatively high on smaller stocks, high volatility stocks, unprofitable stocks, nondividendpaying stocks, extremegrowth stocks, and distressed stocks, consistent with an initial underpricing of these stocks. When sentiment is high, on the other hand, these patterns attenuate or fully reverse. The results are consistent with predictions and appear unlikely to reflect an alternative explanation based on compensation for systematic risk.
A Comprehensive Look at the Empirical Performance of Equity Premium Prediction,”
, 2004
"... Abstract Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that predict the equity premium: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earningsprice ratios, dividend payout ratios, corporate or net issuing ratios, bookmarket ratios, beta premia, interest rates (in various guises), and consumption ..."
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Cited by 279 (6 self)
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Abstract Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that predict the equity premium: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earningsprice ratios, dividend payout ratios, corporate or net issuing ratios, bookmarket ratios, beta premia, interest rates (in various guises), and consumptionbased macroeconomic ratios (cay). Our paper comprehensively reexamines the performance of these variables, both insample and outofsample, as of 2005. We find that [a] over the last 30 years, the prediction models have failed both insample and outofsample; [b] the models are unstable, in that their outofsample predictions have performed unexpectedly poorly; [c] the models would not have helped an investor with access only to information available at the time to time the market. JEL Classification: G12, G14. * Thanks to Malcolm Baker, Ray Ball, John Campbell, John Cochrane, Francis Diebold, Ravi Jagannathan, Owen Lamont, Sydney Ludvigson, Rajnish Mehra, Michael Roberts, Jay Shanken, Samuel Thompson, Jeff Wurgler, and Yihong Xia for comments; and Todd Clark for providing us with some critical McCracken values. We especially appreciate John Campbell and Sam Thompson for iterating drafts and exchanging perspectives with (or against) our earlier draftsthis has allowed us to significantly improve.
The equity share in new issues and aggregate stock returns
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 2000
"... The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power i ..."
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Cited by 278 (30 self)
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The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market explanations of the results. Instead, the fact that the equity share sometimes predicts significantly negative market returns suggests inefficiency and that firms time the market component of their returns when issuing securities.
What does the Yield Curve Tell us about GDP Growth?
, 2003
"... A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model d ..."
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Cited by 193 (7 self)
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A lot, including a few things you may not expect. Previous studies find that the term spread forecasts GDP but these regressions are unconstrained and do not model regressor endogeneity. We build a dynamic model for GDP growth and yields that completely characterizes expectations of GDP. The model does not permit arbitrage. Contrary to previous findings, we predict that the short rate has more predictive power than any term spread. We confirm this finding by forecasting GDP outofsample. The model also recommends the use of lagged GDP and the longest maturity yield to measure slope. Greater efficiency enables the yieldcurve model to produce superior outofsample GDP forecasts than unconstrained OLS at all horizons.
The Dog That Did Not Bark: A Defense of Return Predictability", Review of financial Studies
, 2008
"... If returns are not predictable, dividend growth must be predictable, to generate the observed variation in divided yields. I find that the absence of dividend growth predictability gives stronger evidence than does the presence of return predictability. Longhorizon return forecasts give the same st ..."
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Cited by 169 (11 self)
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If returns are not predictable, dividend growth must be predictable, to generate the observed variation in divided yields. I find that the absence of dividend growth predictability gives stronger evidence than does the presence of return predictability. Longhorizon return forecasts give the same strong evidence. These tests exploit the negative correlation of return forecasts with dividendyield autocorrelation across samples, together with sensible upper bounds on dividendyield autocorrelation, to deliver more powerful statistics. I reconcile my findings with the literature that finds poor power in longhorizon return forecasts, and with the literature that notes the poor outofsample R2 of returnforecasting regressions. (JEL G12, G14, C22) Are stock returns predictable? Table 1 presents regressions of the real and excess valueweighted stock return on its dividendprice ratio, in annual data. In contrast to the simple random walk view, stock returns do seem predictable. Similar or stronger forecasts result from many variations of the variables and data sets. Economic significance
Understanding Predictability
 JOURNAL OF POITICAL ECONOMY
, 2004
"... We propose a general equilibrium model with multiple securities in which investors’ risk preferences and expectations of dividend growth are time varying. While time varying risk preferences induce the standard positive relation between the dividend yield and expected returns, time varying expected ..."
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Cited by 162 (10 self)
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We propose a general equilibrium model with multiple securities in which investors’ risk preferences and expectations of dividend growth are time varying. While time varying risk preferences induce the standard positive relation between the dividend yield and expected returns, time varying expected dividend growth induces a negative relation between them. These offsetting effects reduce the ability of the dividend yield to forecast returns and eliminate its ability to forecast dividend growth, as observed in the data. The model links the predictability of returns to that of dividend growth, suggesting specific changes to standard linear predictive regressions for both. The model’s predictions are con…rmed empirically.
Stock Return Predictability and Model Uncertainty
, 2002
"... We use Bayesian model averaging to analyze the sample evidence on return predictability in the presence of model uncertainty. The analysis reveals insample and outofsample predictability, and shows that the outofsample performance of the Bayesian approach is superior to that of model selecti ..."
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Cited by 161 (6 self)
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We use Bayesian model averaging to analyze the sample evidence on return predictability in the presence of model uncertainty. The analysis reveals insample and outofsample predictability, and shows that the outofsample performance of the Bayesian approach is superior to that of model selection criteria. We find that term and market premia are robust predictors. Moreover, smallcap value stocks appear more predictable than largecap growth stocks. We also investigate the implications of model uncertainty from investment management perspectives. We show that model uncertainty is more important than estimation risk, and investors who discard model uncertainty face large utility losses.