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Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2008
"... We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger ass ..."
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Cited by 485 (13 self)
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We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.
Contentbased multimedia information retrieval: State of the art and challenges
 ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl
, 2006
"... Extending beyond the boundaries of science, art, and culture, contentbased multimedia information retrieval provides new paradigms and methods for searching through the myriad variety of media all over the world. This survey reviews 100+ recent articles on contentbased multimedia information retri ..."
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Cited by 311 (12 self)
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Extending beyond the boundaries of science, art, and culture, contentbased multimedia information retrieval provides new paradigms and methods for searching through the myriad variety of media all over the world. This survey reviews 100+ recent articles on contentbased multimedia information retrieval and discusses their role in current research directions which include browsing and search paradigms, user studies, affective computing, learning, semantic queries, new features and media types, high performance indexing, and evaluation techniques. Based on the current state of the art, we discuss the major challenges for the future.
Contentbased image retrieval: approaches and trends of the new age
 In Proceedings ACM International Workshop on Multimedia Information Retrieval
, 2005
"... The last decade has witnessed great interest in research on contentbased image retrieval. This has paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, and a growing interest in associated fields to support such systems. Likewise, digital imagery has expanded its horizon in many directio ..."
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Cited by 91 (3 self)
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The last decade has witnessed great interest in research on contentbased image retrieval. This has paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, and a growing interest in associated fields to support such systems. Likewise, digital imagery has expanded its horizon in many directions, resulting in an explosion in the volume of image data required to be organized. In this paper, we discuss some of the key contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automated image annotation, spanning 120 references. We also discuss some of the key challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build useful systems that can handle realworld data. We conclude with a study on the trends in volume and impact of publications in the field with respect to venues/journals and subtopics.
LB_Keogh supports exact indexing of shapes under rotation invariance with arbitrary representations and distance measures
 IN VLDB, 2006
, 2006
"... The matching of twodimensional shapes is an important problem with applications in domains as diverse as biometrics, industry, medicine and anthropology. The distance measure used must be invariant to many distortions, including scale, offset, noise, partial occlusion, etc. Most of these distortion ..."
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Cited by 55 (12 self)
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The matching of twodimensional shapes is an important problem with applications in domains as diverse as biometrics, industry, medicine and anthropology. The distance measure used must be invariant to many distortions, including scale, offset, noise, partial occlusion, etc. Most of these distortions are relatively easy to handle, either in the representation of the data or in the similarity measure used. However rotation invariance seems to be uniquely difficult. Current approaches typically try to achieve rotation invariance in the representation of the data, at the expense of discrimination ability, or in the distance measure, at the expense of efficiency. In this work we show that we can take the slow but accurate approaches and dramatically speed them up. On real world problems our technique can take current approaches and make them four orders of magnitude faster, without false dismissals. Moreover, our technique can be used with any of the dozens of existing shape representations and with all the most popular distance measures including Euclidean distance, Dynamic Time Warping and Longest Common Subsequence.
Robust contour matching via the order preserving assignment problem
 IEEE Trans. on Image Processing
, 2004
"... A common approach to determining corresponding points on two shapes is to compute the cost of each possible pairing of points and solve the assignment problem (weighted bipartite matching) for the resulting cost matrix. We consider the problem of solving for point correspondences when the shapes of ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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A common approach to determining corresponding points on two shapes is to compute the cost of each possible pairing of points and solve the assignment problem (weighted bipartite matching) for the resulting cost matrix. We consider the problem of solving for point correspondences when the shapes of interest are each defined by a single, closed contour. A modification of the standard assignment problem is proposed whereby the correspondences are required to preserve the ordering of the points induced from the shapes ’ contours. Enforcement of this constraint leads to significantly improved correspondences. Robustness with respect to outliers and shape irregularity is obtained by required only a fraction of feature points to be matched. Furthermore, the minimum matching size may be specified in advance. We present efficient dynamic programming algorithms to solve the proposed optimization problem. Experiments on the Brown and MPEG7 shape databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method relative to the standard assignment problem. 1
Robustness of Shape Descriptors to Incomplete Contour Representations
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 27(11), 1793 Correspondence B. J. Super
, 2005
"... Abstract—With inspiration from psychophysical researches of the human visual system, we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contourbased shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of ob ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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Abstract—With inspiration from psychophysical researches of the human visual system, we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contourbased shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a reference (training) set. Incomplete contour representations of the same objects are used as a test set. The performance of an algorithm is reported using the recognition rate as a function of the percentage of contour retained. We call this evaluation procedure the ICR test. We consider three types of contour incompleteness, viz. segmentwise contour deletion, occlusion, and random pixel depletion. As an illustration, the robustness of two shape recognition algorithms to contour incompleteness is evaluated. These algorithms use a shape context and a distance multiset as local shape descriptors. Qualitatively, both algorithms mimic human visual perception in the sense that recognition performance monotonously increases with the degree of completeness and that they perform best in the case of random depletion and worst in the case of occluded contours. The distance multiset method performs better than the shape context method in this test framework.
Shape retrieval using trianglearea representation and dynamic space warping
, 2006
"... We present a shape representation and a matching method for nonrigid shapes with closed contours. The representation utilizes the areas of the triangles formed by the boundary points to measure the convexity/concavity of each point at different scales (or triangle side lengths). This representation ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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We present a shape representation and a matching method for nonrigid shapes with closed contours. The representation utilizes the areas of the triangles formed by the boundary points to measure the convexity/concavity of each point at different scales (or triangle side lengths). This representation is effective in capturing both local and global characteristics of a shape, invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling, and robust against noise and moderate amounts of articulation and occlusion. In the matching stage, we employ a dynamic space warping (DSW) algorithm to search efficiently for the optimal (least cost) correspondence between the points of two shapes. Then, we derive a dissimilarity distance based on the optimal correspondence. We demonstrate the performance of our method using four standard tests on two wellknown shape databases. The results show the superiority of our method over other recent methods in the literature.
Unified Framework for Fast Exact and Approximate Search in Dissimilarity Spaces
, 2007
"... In multimedia systems we usually need to retrieve DB objects based on their similarity to a query object, while the similarity assessment is provided by a measure which defines a (dis)similarity score for every pair of DB objects. In most existing applications, the similarity measure is required to ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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In multimedia systems we usually need to retrieve DB objects based on their similarity to a query object, while the similarity assessment is provided by a measure which defines a (dis)similarity score for every pair of DB objects. In most existing applications, the similarity measure is required to be a metric, where the triangle inequality is utilized to speedup the search for relevant objects by use of metric access methods (MAMs), e.g. the Mtree. A recent research has shown, however, that nonmetric measures are more appropriate for similarity modeling due to their robustness and ease to model a madetomeasure similarity. Unfortunately, due to the lack of triangle inequality, the nonmetric measures cannot be directly utilized by MAMs. From another point of view, some sophisticated similarity measures could be available in a blackbox nonanalytic form (e.g. as an algorithm or even a hardware device), where no information about their topological properties is provided, so we have to consider them as nonmetric measures as well. From yet another point of view, the concept of similarity measuring itself is inherently imprecise and we often prefer fast but approximate retrieval over an exact but slower one. To date, the mentioned aspects of similarity retrieval have been solved separately, i.e. exact vs. approximate search or metric vs. nonmetric search. In this paper we introduce a similarity retrieval framework which incorporates both of the aspects into a single unified model. Based on the framework, we show that for any dissimilarity measure (either a metric or nonmetric) we are able to change the ”amount ” of triangle inequality, and so to obtain an approximate or full metric which can be used for MAMbased retrieval. Due to the varying ”amoun ” of triangle inequality, the measure is modified in a way suitable for either an exact but slower or an approximate but faster retrieval. Additionally, we introduce the TriGen algorithm aimed to construct the desired modification of any blackbox distance automatically, using just a small fraction of the database.
Faster Retrieval with a TwoPass DynamicTimeWarping Lower Bound
, 2009
"... The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is a popular similarity measure between time series. The DTW fails to satisfy the triangle inequality and its computation requires quadratic time. Hence, to find closest neighbors quickly, we use bounding techniques. We can avoid most DTW computations with an inexpensi ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is a popular similarity measure between time series. The DTW fails to satisfy the triangle inequality and its computation requires quadratic time. Hence, to find closest neighbors quickly, we use bounding techniques. We can avoid most DTW computations with an inexpensive lower bound (LB Keogh). We compare LB Keogh with a tighter lower bound (LB Improved). We find that LB Improvedbased search is faster. As an example, our approach is 2–3 times faster over randomwalk and shape time series.