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Causal Diagrams For Empirical Research
"... The primary aim of this paper is to show how graphical models can be used as a mathematical language for integrating statistical and subjectmatter information. In particular, the paper develops a principled, nonparametric framework for causal inference, in which diagrams are queried to determine if ..."
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Cited by 244 (43 self)
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The primary aim of this paper is to show how graphical models can be used as a mathematical language for integrating statistical and subjectmatter information. In particular, the paper develops a principled, nonparametric framework for causal inference, in which diagrams are queried to determine if the assumptions available are sufficient for identifying causal effects from nonexperimental data. If so the diagrams can be queried to produce mathematical expressions for causal effects in terms of observed distributions; otherwise, the diagrams can be queried to suggest additional observations or auxiliary experiments from which the desired inferences can be obtained. Key words: Causal inference, graph models, interventions treatment effect 1 Introduction The tools introduced in this paper are aimed at helping researchers communicate qualitative assumptions about causeeffect relationships, elucidate the ramifications of such assumptions, and derive causal inferences from a combination...
Graphical Models, Causality, And Intervention
, 1993
"... tion of belief networks is given in [4]. 2 In [3], the graphs were called "causal networks," for which the authors were criticised; they have agreed to refrain from using the word "causal." In the current paper, Spiegelhalter etal. deemphasize the causal interpretation of the a ..."
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Cited by 105 (41 self)
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tion of belief networks is given in [4]. 2 In [3], the graphs were called "causal networks," for which the authors were criticised; they have agreed to refrain from using the word "causal." In the current paper, Spiegelhalter etal. deemphasize the causal interpretation of the arcs in favor of the "irrelevance" interpretation (page 4). I think this retreat is regrettable for two reasons: first, causal associations are the primary source of judgments about irrelevance and, second, rejecting the causal interpretation of arcs prevents us from using graphical models for making legitimate predictions about the effect of actions. Such predictions are indispensable in applications such as treatment management and patient monitoring. the causal model also tells us how these probabilities would change as a result of external interventions in the system. For this reason, causal models (or "structural models" as they are often called) have been the target of relent
Graphs, Causality, And Structural Equation Models
, 1998
"... Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers. ..."
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Cited by 57 (15 self)
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) has dominated causal analysis in the social and behavioral sciences since the 1960s. Currently, many SEM practitioners are having difficulty articulating the causal content of SEM and are seeking foundational answers.
Temporal Representation and Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence: Issues and Approaches
, 2002
"... this paper, we survey a wide range of research in temporal representation and reasoning, without committing ourselves to the point of view of any speci c application ..."
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Cited by 27 (1 self)
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this paper, we survey a wide range of research in temporal representation and reasoning, without committing ourselves to the point of view of any speci c application
Learning Causal Networks from Data: A survey and a new algorithm for recovering possibilistic causal networks
, 1997
"... Introduction Reasoning in terms of cause and effect is a strategy that arises in many tasks. For example, diagnosis is usually defined as the task of finding the causes (illnesses) from the observed effects (symptoms). Similarly, prediction can be understood as the description of a future plausible ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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Introduction Reasoning in terms of cause and effect is a strategy that arises in many tasks. For example, diagnosis is usually defined as the task of finding the causes (illnesses) from the observed effects (symptoms). Similarly, prediction can be understood as the description of a future plausible situation where observed effects will be in accordance with the known causal structure of the phenomenon being studied. Causal models are a summary of the knowledge about a phenomenon expressed in terms of causation. Many areas of the ap # This work has been partially supported by the Spanish Comission Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia Project CICYTTIC96 0878. plied sciences (econometry, biomedics, engineering, etc.) have used such a term to refer to models that yield explanations, allow for prediction and facilitate planning and decision making. Causal reasoning can be viewed as inference guided by a causation theory. That kind of inference can be further specialised into induc
Formalising a software safety case via belief networks
, 1995
"... The SHIP project (ref. EV5V 103) is being carried out with financial support from the EEC in the ..."
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Cited by 19 (9 self)
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The SHIP project (ref. EV5V 103) is being carried out with financial support from the EEC in the
Aspects Of Graphical Models Connected With Causality
, 1993
"... This paper demonstrates the use of graphs as a mathematical tool for expressing independenices, and as a formal language for communicating and processing causal information in statistical analysis. We show how complex information about external interventions can be organized and represented graphica ..."
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Cited by 16 (9 self)
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This paper demonstrates the use of graphs as a mathematical tool for expressing independenices, and as a formal language for communicating and processing causal information in statistical analysis. We show how complex information about external interventions can be organized and represented graphically and, conversely, how the graphical representation can be used to facilitate quantitative predictions of the effects of interventions. We first review the Markovian account of causation and show that directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) offer an economical scheme for representing conditional independence assumptions and for deducing and displaying all the logical consequences of such assumptions. We then introduce the manipulative account of causation and show that any DAG defines a simple transformation which tells us how the probability distribution will change as a result of external interventions in the system. Using this transformation it is possible to quantify, from nonexperimental data...
Bayesian Belief Network Model for the Safety Assessment
 of Nuclear ComputerBased Systems.” Esprit Long Term Research Project 20072DeVa, Second Year Report Part
"... Abstract The formalism of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) is being increasingly applied to probabilistic modelling and decision problems in a widening variety of fields. This method provides the advantages of a formal probabilistic model, presented in an easily assimilated visual form, together with ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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Abstract The formalism of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) is being increasingly applied to probabilistic modelling and decision problems in a widening variety of fields. This method provides the advantages of a formal probabilistic model, presented in an easily assimilated visual form, together with the ready availability of efficient computational methods and tools for exploring model consequences. Here we formulate one BBN model of a part of the safety assessment task for computer and software based nuclear systems important to safety. Our model is developed from the perspective of an independent safety assessor who is presented with the task of evaluating evidence from disparate sources: the requirement specification and verification documentation of the system licensee and of the system manufacturer; the previous reputation of the various participants in the design process; knowledge of commercial pressures; information about tools and resources used; and many other sources. Based on these multiple sources of evidence, the independent assessor is ultimately obliged to make a decision as
Application of a Bayesian network in a GIS based decision making system
 Int. J. Geographical Information Science
, 1998
"... In this paper we show how a Pearl Bayes network of inference can be used with a GIS in order to combine information from different sources of data for the purpose of classification. Data may include satellite images, topographic maps, geological maps etc, each one with its own resolution and accurac ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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In this paper we show how a Pearl Bayes network of inference can be used with a GIS in order to combine information from different sources of data for the purpose of classification. Data may include satellite images, topographic maps, geological maps etc, each one with its own resolution and accuracy. We show how this uncertainty in the input data is incorporated in the network and develop also a method to construct the conditional probability matrices used by the network. We demonstrate our approach within the framework of the problem of assessing the risk of desertification of some burned forests in the Mediterranean region. 1
Formalising Engineering Judgement on Software Dependability via Belief Networks
 Proc. DCCA'97 (Sixth IFIP International Working Conference on Dependable Computing for Critical Applications) GarmischPartenkirchen
, 1997
"... We present the use of Bayesian belief networks to formalise reasoning about software dependability, so as to make assessments easier to build and to check. Bayesian belief networks include a graphical representation of the structure of a complex argument, and a sound calculus for representing pr ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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We present the use of Bayesian belief networks to formalise reasoning about software dependability, so as to make assessments easier to build and to check. Bayesian belief networks include a graphical representation of the structure of a complex argument, and a sound calculus for representing probabilistic information and updating it with new observations. We illustrate the method and show its feasibility via a simple example, developed via a commercial computer tool, representing a form of argument which is often used in claims for high dependability. This example is not meant to be "typical", since a sound and complete argument can only be built using the knowledge available in the specific case of interest. This example, although simple, demonstrates the advantages of using belief networks for sounder assessment of reliability and safety. 1. Introduction The probabilistic assessment of the dependability of software products is a formidable task, for which no proven me...