Results 1  10
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4,311
Studies of transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids
 J. Mol. Biol
, 1983
"... Factors that affect he probability of genetic transformation f Escherichia coli by plasmids have been evaluated. A set of conditions is described under which about one in every 400 plasmid molecules produces a transformed cell. These conditions include cell growth in medium containing elevated level ..."
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Cited by 1609 (1 self)
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Factors that affect he probability of genetic transformation f Escherichia coli by plasmids have been evaluated. A set of conditions is described under which about one in every 400 plasmid molecules produces a transformed cell. These conditions include cell growth in medium containing elevated levels of Mg 2+. and incubation of the cells at 0 ~ in a solution of Mn 2+, ("a 2+, Rb + or K +, dimethyl sulfoxide, dithiothreitol, and hexamine cobalt (III). Transibrmation efficiency declines linearly with increasing plasmid size. Relaxed and supercoiled plasmids transfol'm with similar probabilities. Nontransforming DNAs compete consistent with mass. No significant variation is observed between competing DNAs of difi~rent source, complexity, length or form. Competition with both transforming and nontransforming plasmids indicates that each cell is capable of taking up many DNA molecules, and that the establishment of a transformation event is neither helped nor hindered significantly by the presence of multiple plasmids. 1. Introduct ion Both gramposit ive and gramnegative bacteria can take up and stably establish
Theory and Practice of Constraint Handling Rules
, 1998
"... Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are our proposal to allow more flexibility and applicationoriented customization of constraint systems. CHR are a declarative language extension especially designed for writing userdefined constraints. CHR are essentially a committedchoice language consisting of mu ..."
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Cited by 459 (36 self)
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Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are our proposal to allow more flexibility and applicationoriented customization of constraint systems. CHR are a declarative language extension especially designed for writing userdefined constraints. CHR are essentially a committedchoice language consisting of multiheaded guarded rules that rewrite constraints into simpler ones until they are solved. In this broad survey we aim at covering all aspects of CHR as they currently present themselves. Going from theory to practice, we will define syntax and semantics for CHR, introduce an important decidable property, confluence, of CHR programs and define a tight integration of CHR with constraint logic programming languages. This survey then describes implementations of the language before we review several constraint solvers  both traditional and non standard ones  written in the CHR language. Finally we introduce two innovative applications that benefited from using CHR.
Synchronization and linearity: an algebra for discrete event systems
, 2001
"... The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific ..."
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Cited by 369 (11 self)
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The first edition of this book was published in 1992 by Wiley (ISBN 0 471 93609 X). Since this book is now out of print, and to answer the request of several colleagues, the authors have decided to make it available freely on the Web, while retaining the copyright, for the benefit of the scientific community. Copyright Statement This electronic document is in PDF format. One needs Acrobat Reader (available freely for most platforms from the Adobe web site) to benefit from the full interactive machinery: using the package hyperref by Sebastian Rahtz, the table of contents and all LATEX crossreferences are automatically converted into clickable hyperlinks, bookmarks are generated automatically, etc.. So, do not hesitate to click on references to equation or section numbers, on items of thetableofcontents and of the index, etc.. One may freely use and print this document for one’s own purpose or even distribute it freely, but not commercially, provided it is distributed in its entirety and without modifications, including this preface and copyright statement. Any use of thecontents should be acknowledged according to the standard scientific practice. The
The Turn Model for Adaptive Routing
 Journal of ACM
, 1994
"... Abstract. This paper presents a model for designing wormhole routing algorithms, A unique feature of the model is th~t lt is not based cm adding physical or virtual channels to direct networks (although it can be applied to networks with extra channels). Instead, the model is based [In analyzlng the ..."
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Cited by 358 (6 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a model for designing wormhole routing algorithms, A unique feature of the model is th~t lt is not based cm adding physical or virtual channels to direct networks (although it can be applied to networks with extra channels). Instead, the model is based [In analyzlng the directions in which packets can turn m a network and the cycles that the turns can form. Prohibiting just enough turns to brezk all of the cycles produces routing algorithms that are deadlock free, livelock free, mmimal or nonminimal, and highly adaptive. This paper focuses on the two most common network topologies for wormhole routing, ~zdimensional meshes and kary /zcubes without extra channels. In such networks, just a quarter of the turns must be prohibited to prevent deadlock. The remaining three quarters of the turns allow routing to be fidaptwe, Adaptive routing algorithms are described for twodimensional meshes, ndimensional meshes kmy ~tcubes, and hypercubes. Simulations of adaptive and nonadaptive routing algorithms show which algorlthm has the lowest latcncies and highest sustainable throughput depends on the pattern of message traffic. For nonuniform traffic, adaptive routing algorithms generally perform better than nonadaptive ones.
Nonholonomic motion planning: Steering using sinusoids
 IEEE fins. Auto. Control
, 1993
"... AbstractIn this paper, we investigate methods for steering systems with nonholonomic constraints between arbitrary configurations. Early work by Brockett derives the optimal controls for a set of canonical systems in which the tangent space to the configuration manifold is spanned by the input vec ..."
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Cited by 353 (15 self)
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AbstractIn this paper, we investigate methods for steering systems with nonholonomic constraints between arbitrary configurations. Early work by Brockett derives the optimal controls for a set of canonical systems in which the tangent space to the configuration manifold is spanned by the input vector fields and their first order Lie brackets. Using Brockett’s result as motivation, we derive suboptimal trajectories for systems which are not in canonical form and consider systems in which it takes more than one level of bracketing to achieve controllability. These trajectories use sinusoids at integrally related frequencies to achieve motion at a given bracketing level. We define a class of systems which can be steered using sinusoids (chained systems) and give conditions under which a class of twoinput systems can be converted into this form. I.
How algebraic Bethe ansatz works for integrable model
 In: Symétries quantiques (Les Houches
, 1996
"... In my Les–Houches lectures of 1982 I described the inverse scattering method of solving the integrable field–theoretical models in 1+1 dimensional space–time. Both classical case, stemming from the famous paper by Gardner, Green, Kruskal and Miura of 1967 on KdV equation, and its quantum counterpart ..."
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Cited by 273 (4 self)
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In my Les–Houches lectures of 1982 I described the inverse scattering method of solving the integrable field–theoretical models in 1+1 dimensional space–time. Both classical case, stemming from the famous paper by Gardner, Green, Kruskal and Miura of 1967 on KdV equation, and its quantum counterpart, developed mostly by
The Immersed Interface Method for Elliptic Equations with Discontinuous Coefficients and Singular Sources
 SIAM J. Num. Anal
, 1994
"... Abstract. The authors develop finite difference methods for elliptic equations of the form V. ((x)Vu(x)) + (x)u(x) f(x) in a region in one or two space dimensions. It is assumed that gt is a simple region (e.g., a rectangle) and that a uniform rectangular grid is used. The situation is studied in wh ..."
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Cited by 270 (31 self)
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Abstract. The authors develop finite difference methods for elliptic equations of the form V. ((x)Vu(x)) + (x)u(x) f(x) in a region in one or two space dimensions. It is assumed that gt is a simple region (e.g., a rectangle) and that a uniform rectangular grid is used. The situation is studied in which there is an irregular surface F of codimension contained in fl across which, a, and f may be discontinuous, and along which the source f may have a delta function singularity. As a result, derivatives of the solution u may be discontinuous across F. The specification of a jump discontinuity in u itself across F is allowed. It is shown that it is possible to modify the standard centered difference approximation to maintain second order accuracy on the uniform grid even when F is not aligned with the grid. This approach is also compared with a discrete delta function approach to handling singular sources, as used in Peskin’s immersed boundary method. Key words, elliptic equation, finite difference methods, irregular domain, interface, discontinuous coefficients, singular source term, delta functions AMS subject classifications. 65N06, 65N50 1. Introduction. Consider
Duplication of both xyl catabolic operons on TOL plasmid pWW15
 J. Gen
, 1991
"... Pseudomonasfluorescens MT15 is the host of the large (250 kbp) TOL plasmid pWW15. We have shown by a combination of hybridization, molecular cloning and enzyme assay that pW W 15 carries two distinct regions which share homology with the upper pathway operons (xylCMABN) of other TOL plasmids and two ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Pseudomonasfluorescens MT15 is the host of the large (250 kbp) TOL plasmid pWW15. We have shown by a combination of hybridization, molecular cloning and enzyme assay that pW W 15 carries two distinct regions which share homology with the upper pathway operons (xylCMABN) of other TOL plasmids
(xyl) by Simultaneous Expression and Cloning in Single Vector in E. coli
"... This study attempted to reduce the enzyme production cost for exploiting lignocellulosic materials by expression of multiple genes in a single host. Genes for bacterial laccase (CotA), pectate lyase (Pel) and endoxylanase (Xyl), which hold significance in lignocellulose degradation, were cloned in p ..."
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This study attempted to reduce the enzyme production cost for exploiting lignocellulosic materials by expression of multiple genes in a single host. Genes for bacterial laccase (CotA), pectate lyase (Pel) and endoxylanase (Xyl), which hold significance in lignocellulose degradation, were cloned
Results 1  10
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