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Language Modeling Usual Assumptions
"... P (AW) acoustic model (AM, Hidden Markov Model); varies depending on problem (machine translation, spelling correction, soft keyboard input) P (W) language model (LM, usually Markov chain) search for the most likely word string Ŵ ..."
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P (AW) acoustic model (AM, Hidden Markov Model); varies depending on problem (machine translation, spelling correction, soft keyboard input) P (W) language model (LM, usually Markov chain) search for the most likely word string Ŵ
WHY USUAL ASSUMPTIONS SHOULD BE QUESTIONED1
"... Even if usual hypotheses in gender and science research are well established and useful, we want to question some of them in order to move towards new more complex and qualitative research questions and deepen the existing knowledge in this field. In this paper, we propose to question five issues in ..."
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Even if usual hypotheses in gender and science research are well established and useful, we want to question some of them in order to move towards new more complex and qualitative research questions and deepen the existing knowledge in this field. In this paper, we propose to question five issues
POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF BIAS IN FIXED EFFECT ESTIMATES, GIVEN BY MIXED MODEL EQUATIONS, WHEN AN USUAL ASSUMPTION IS NOT MET
"... One of the assumptions for mixed model equations (MME; Henderson, 1963) to provide unbiased estimates of fixed effects is that (X´V1X)1 X´V1Z E(u)=0 (X, V, Z, and u will be defined later. E(u) is the expected value of vector u). This is an implicit valid assumption in two situations: (1) when the ..."
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One of the assumptions for mixed model equations (MME; Henderson, 1963) to provide unbiased estimates of fixed effects is that (X´V1X)1 X´V1Z E(u)=0 (X, V, Z, and u will be defined later. E(u) is the expected value of vector u). This is an implicit valid assumption in two situations: (1) when
Publickey cryptosystems based on composite degree residuosity classes
 IN ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY — EUROCRYPT 1999
, 1999
"... This paper investigates a novel computational problem, namely the Composite Residuosity Class Problem, and its applications to publickey cryptography. We propose a new trapdoor mechanism and derive from this technique three encryption schemes: a trapdoor permutation and two homomorphic probabilist ..."
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Cited by 1009 (4 self)
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probabilistic encryption schemes computationally comparable to RSA. Our cryptosystems, based on usual modular arithmetics, are provably secure under appropriate assumptions in the standard model.
Object Tracking: A Survey
, 2006
"... The goal of this article is to review the stateoftheart tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns o ..."
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Cited by 701 (7 self)
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of both the object and the scene, nonrigid object structures, objecttoobject and objecttoscene occlusions, and camera motion. Tracking is usually performed in the context of higherlevel applications that require the location and/or shape of the object in every frame. Typically, assumptions are made
Axiomatic quantum field theory in curved spacetime
, 2008
"... The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features—such as Poincare invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state—that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary globa ..."
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Cited by 689 (18 self)
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The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features—such as Poincare invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state—that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary
Analysis of relative gene expression data using realtime quantitative
 PCR and 2 ���CT method. Methods 25
, 2001
"... of the target gene relative to some reference group The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from realtime, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantificasuch as an untreated control or a sample at time zero tion and relative quantification. Absolute quantification deter in a time ..."
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Cited by 2666 (6 self)
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timecourse study. mines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal Absolute quantification should be performed in situto a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal ations where it is necessary to determine the absolute of the target transcript in a treatment group
A randomized protocol for signing contracts
, 1990
"... Two parties, A and B, want to sign a contract C over a communication network. To do so, they must “simultaneously” exchange their commitments to C. Since simultaneous exchange is usually impossible in practice, protocols are needed to approximate simultaneity by exchanging partial commitments in pie ..."
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Cited by 599 (11 self)
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Two parties, A and B, want to sign a contract C over a communication network. To do so, they must “simultaneously” exchange their commitments to C. Since simultaneous exchange is usually impossible in practice, protocols are needed to approximate simultaneity by exchanging partial commitments
A comparison of event models for Naive Bayes text classification
, 1998
"... Recent work in text classification has used two different firstorder probabilistic models for classification, both of which make the naive Bayes assumption. Some use a multivariate Bernoulli model, that is, a Bayesian Network with no dependencies between words and binary word features (e.g. Larkey ..."
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Cited by 1025 (26 self)
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Recent work in text classification has used two different firstorder probabilistic models for classification, both of which make the naive Bayes assumption. Some use a multivariate Bernoulli model, that is, a Bayesian Network with no dependencies between words and binary word features (e
Genomic control for association studies
, 1999
"... A dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering the genome and an efficient method to assess SNP genotypes are expected to be available in the near future. An outstanding question is how to use these technologies efficiently to identify genes affecting liability to complex disorders. ..."
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Cited by 480 (13 self)
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. To achieve this goal, we propose a statistical method that has several optimal properties: It can be used with casecontrol data and yet, like familybased designs, controls for population heterogeneity; it is insensitive to the usual violations of model assumptions, such as cases failing to be strictly
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