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899,330
Error and attack tolerance of complex networks
, 2000
"... Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network [1]. C ..."
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Cited by 974 (6 self)
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Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network [1
The Optimal Degree of Commitment to an Intermediate Monetary Target
 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
, 1985
"... ..."
N Degrees of Separation: MultiDimensional Separation of Concerns
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 1999
"... Done well, separation of concerns can provide many software engineering benefits, including reduced complexity, improved reusability, and simpler evolution. The choice of boundaries for separate concerns depends on both requirements on the system and on the kind(s) of decompositionand composition a ..."
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Cited by 514 (8 self)
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Done well, separation of concerns can provide many software engineering benefits, including reduced complexity, improved reusability, and simpler evolution. The choice of boundaries for separate concerns depends on both requirements on the system and on the kind(s) of decompositionand composition a given formalism supports. The predominant methodologies and formalisms available, however, support only orthogonal separations of concerns, along single dimensions of composition and decomposition. These characteristics lead to a number of wellknown and difficult problems. This paper describes a new paradigm for modeling and implementing software artifacts, one that permits separation of overlapping concerns along multiple dimensions of composition and decomposition. This approach addresses numerous problems throughout the software lifecycle in achieving wellengineered, evolvable, flexible software artifacts and traceability across artifacts.
A Critical Point For Random Graphs With A Given Degree Sequence
, 2000
"... Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0 the ..."
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Cited by 511 (8 self)
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Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0
A Measurement Study of PeertoPeer File Sharing Systems
, 2002
"... The popularity of peertopeer multimedia file sharing applications such as Gnutella and Napster has created a flurry of recent research activity into peertopeer architectures. We believe that the proper evaluation of a peertopeer system must take into account the characteristics of the peers th ..."
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Cited by 1249 (18 self)
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that choose to participate. Surprisingly, however, few of the peertopeer architectures currently being developed are evaluated with respect to such considerations. In this paper, we remedy this situation by performing a detailed measurement study of the two popular peertopeer file sharing systems, namely
The space complexity of approximating the frequency moments
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTER AND SYSTEM SCIENCES
, 1996
"... The frequency moments of a sequence containing mi elements of type i, for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are the numbers Fk = �n i=1 mki. We consider the space complexity of randomized algorithms that approximate the numbers Fk, when the elements of the sequence are given one by one and cannot be stored. Surprisingly, ..."
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Cited by 855 (12 self)
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The frequency moments of a sequence containing mi elements of type i, for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, are the numbers Fk = �n i=1 mki. We consider the space complexity of randomized algorithms that approximate the numbers Fk, when the elements of the sequence are given one by one and cannot be stored. Surprisingly
Curvelets: a surprisingly effective nonadaptive representation of objects with edges
 IN CURVE AND SURFACE FITTING: SAINTMALO
, 2000
"... It is widely believed that to efficiently represent an otherwise smooth object with discontinuities along edges, one must use an adaptive representation that in some sense ‘tracks ’ the shape of the discontinuity set. This folkbelief — some would say folktheorem — is incorrect. At the very least ..."
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Cited by 390 (23 self)
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It is widely believed that to efficiently represent an otherwise smooth object with discontinuities along edges, one must use an adaptive representation that in some sense ‘tracks ’ the shape of the discontinuity set. This folkbelief — some would say folktheorem — is incorrect. At the very least, the possible quantitative advantage of such adaptation is vastly smaller than commonly believed. We have recently constructed a tight frame of curvelets which provides stable, efficient, and nearoptimal representation of otherwise smooth objects having discontinuities along smooth curves. By applying naive thresholding to the curvelet transform of such an object, one can form mterm approximations with rate of L 2 approximation rivaling the rate obtainable by complex adaptive schemes which attempt to ‘track ’ the discontinuity set. In this article we explain the basic issues of efficient mterm approximation, the construction of efficient adaptive representation, the construction of the curvelet frame, and a crude analysis of the performance of curvelet schemes.
Hierarchical Models of Object Recognition in Cortex
, 1999
"... The classical model of visual processing in cortex is a hierarchy of increasingly sophisticated representations, extending in a natural way the model of simple to complex cells of Hubel and Wiesel. Somewhat surprisingly, little quantitative modeling has been done in the last 15 years to explore th ..."
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Cited by 817 (84 self)
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The classical model of visual processing in cortex is a hierarchy of increasingly sophisticated representations, extending in a natural way the model of simple to complex cells of Hubel and Wiesel. Somewhat surprisingly, little quantitative modeling has been done in the last 15 years to explore
Graphs over Time: Densification Laws, Shrinking Diameters and Possible Explanations
, 2005
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
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Cited by 534 (48 self)
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heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs
Increasing Returns and Economic Geography
 Journal of Political Economy
, 1991
"... This paper develops a simple model that shows how a country can endogenously become differentiated into an industrialized "core" and an agricultural "periphery. " In order to realize scale economies while minimizing transport costs, manufacturing firms tend to locate in the regio ..."
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Cited by 1745 (7 self)
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von Thunen (1826) play an important role in urban studies, while Hotellingtype models of locational competition get a reasonable degree of attention in industrial organization. On the whole, however, it seems fair to say that the study of economic geography plays at best a marginal role in economic
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