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Iterative decoding of binary block and convolutional codes
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1996
"... Iterative decoding of twodimensional systematic convolutional codes has been termed “turbo” (de)coding. Using loglikelihood algebra, we show that any decoder can he used which accepts soft inputsincluding a priori valuesand delivers soft outputs that can he split into three terms: the soft chann ..."
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Cited by 599 (43 self)
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channel and a priori inputs, and the extrinsic value. The extrinsic value is used as an a priori value for the next iteration. Decoding algorithms in the loglikelihood domain are given not only for convolutional codes hut also for any linear binary systematic block code. The iteration is controlled by a
Decoding by Linear Programming
, 2004
"... This paper considers the classical error correcting problem which is frequently discussed in coding theory. We wish to recover an input vector f ∈ Rn from corrupted measurements y = Af + e. Here, A is an m by n (coding) matrix and e is an arbitrary and unknown vector of errors. Is it possible to rec ..."
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Cited by 1371 (16 self)
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for some ρ> 0. In short, f can be recovered exactly by solving a simple convex optimization problem (which one can recast as a linear program). In addition, numerical experiments suggest that this recovery procedure works unreasonably well; f is recovered exactly even in situations where a significant
Spacetime block codes from orthogonal designs
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1999
"... Abstract — We introduce space–time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code and the encoded data is split into � streams which are simultaneously transmitted using � transmit antennas. ..."
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Cited by 1500 (42 self)
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of the space–time block code and gives a maximumlikelihood decoding algorithm which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. Space–time block codes are designed to achieve the maximum diversity order for a given number of transmit and receive antennas subject to the constraint of having a simple
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1761 (69 self)
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be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
Discriminative Training Methods for Hidden Markov Models: Theory and Experiments with Perceptron Algorithms
, 2002
"... We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a modific ..."
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Cited by 642 (13 self)
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We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a
A Simple, Fast, and Accurate Algorithm to Estimate Large Phylogenies by Maximum Likelihood
, 2003
"... The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximumlikelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The ..."
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Cited by 2110 (27 self)
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. The core of this method is a simple hillclimbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distancebased method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment
The Capacity of LowDensity ParityCheck Codes Under MessagePassing Decoding
, 2001
"... In this paper, we present a general method for determining the capacity of lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) codes under messagepassing decoding when used over any binaryinput memoryless channel with discrete or continuous output alphabets. Transmitting at rates below this capacity, a randomly chos ..."
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Cited by 569 (9 self)
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. Our results are based on the observation that the concentration of the performance of the decoder around its average performance, as observed by Luby et al. [1] in the case of a binarysymmetric channel and a binary messagepassing algorithm, is a general phenomenon. For the particularly important
The CN2 Induction Algorithm
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1989
"... Systems for inducing concept descriptions from examples are valuable tools for assisting in the task of knowledge acquisition for expert systems. This paper presents a description and empirical evaluation of a new induction system, cn2, designed for the efficient induction of simple, comprehensib ..."
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Cited by 884 (6 self)
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Systems for inducing concept descriptions from examples are valuable tools for assisting in the task of knowledge acquisition for expert systems. This paper presents a description and empirical evaluation of a new induction system, cn2, designed for the efficient induction of simple
A Limited Memory Algorithm for Bound Constrained Optimization
 SIAM JOURNAL ON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING
, 1994
"... An algorithm for solving large nonlinear optimization problems with simple bounds is described. It is based ..."
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Cited by 548 (9 self)
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An algorithm for solving large nonlinear optimization problems with simple bounds is described. It is based
The weighted majority algorithm
, 1992
"... We study the construction of prediction algorithms in a situation in which a learner faces a sequence of trials, with a prediction to be made in each, and the goal of the learner is to make few mistakes. We are interested in the case that the learner has reason to believe that one of some pool of kn ..."
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Cited by 854 (42 self)
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of known algorithms will perform well, but the learner does not know which one. A simple and effective method, based on weighted voting, is introduced for constructing a compound algorithm in such a circumstance. We call this method the Weighted Majority Algorithm. We show that this algorithm is robust
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