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1,443
Indistinguishability amplification
, 2006
"... A random system is the abstraction of the inputoutput behavior of any kind of discrete system, in particular cryptographic systems. Many aspects of cryptographic security analyses and proofs can be seen as the proof that a certain random system (e.g. a block cipher) is indistinguishable from an ide ..."
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Cited by 18 (6 self)
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operation of systems (including the combination of functions or the cascade of permutations), we prove two amplification theorems. The first is a directproduct theorem, similar in spirit to the XORLemma: The distinguishing advantage (or security) of the combination of two (possibly stateful) systems
Amplification and Percolation
, 1992
"... Moore and Shannon had shown that relays with arbitrarily high reliability can be built from relays with arbitrarily poor reliability. Valiant used similar methods to construct monotone readonce formulae of size O(n ff+2 ) (where ff = log p 5\Gamma1 2 ' 3:27) that amplify (/ \Gamma 1 n ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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Moore and Shannon had shown that relays with arbitrarily high reliability can be built from relays with arbitrarily poor reliability. Valiant used similar methods to construct monotone readonce formulae of size O(n ff+2 ) (where ff = log p 5\Gamma1 2 ' 3:27) that amplify (/ \Gamma 1 n
On uniform amplification of hardness in NP
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTYSEVENTH ANNUAL ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 2005
"... We continue the study of amplification of averagecase complexity within NP, and we focus on the uniform case. We prove that if every problem in NP admits an efficient uniform algorithm that (averaged over random inputs and over the internal coin tosses of the algorithm) succeeds with probability at ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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We continue the study of amplification of averagecase complexity within NP, and we focus on the uniform case. We prove that if every problem in NP admits an efficient uniform algorithm that (averaged over random inputs and over the internal coin tosses of the algorithm) succeeds with probability
Selfsimilar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,”
 Physical Review Letters,
, 2000
"... Ultrashort pulse propagation in high gain optical fiber amplifiers with normal dispersion is studied by selfsimilarity analysis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with gain. An exact asymptotic solution is found, corresponding to a linearly chirped parabolic pulse which propagates selfsimilarl ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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Ultrashort pulse propagation in high gain optical fiber amplifiers with normal dispersion is studied by selfsimilarity analysis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with gain. An exact asymptotic solution is found, corresponding to a linearly chirped parabolic pulse which propagates selfsimilarly
750 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR AMPLIFICATION OF STAINING BY ALCIAN BLUE AND SIMILAR INGRAIN
"... Uptake of basic dyes bound to polyanionic substrates by mainly electrostatic links ceases when available negative sites have paired off with cationic groups of the dye. The sensitivity of detection of the substrate is then at a maximum. Sensitivity can be increased by reacting the bound dye with an ..."
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Uptake of basic dyes bound to polyanionic substrates by mainly electrostatic links ceases when available negative sites have paired off with cationic groups of the dye. The sensitivity of detection of the substrate is then at a maximum. Sensitivity can be increased by reacting the bound dye with another dye or chromogen in a “sandwich” technique (e.g., bromcresol green with cetylpyridinium (1)). The reactant must be specific for the bound dye, and it should not upset the established pattern of localization. Another way of increasing sensitivity would be to free polyanionic sites for combination with more cationic dye without removing already bound dye or allowing it to diffuse from its initial position.
On the complexity of hardness amplification
 In Proceedings of the 20th Annual IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity
, 2005
"... We study the task of transforming a hard function f, with which any small circuit disagrees on (1 − δ)/2 fraction of the input, into a harder function f ′ , with which any small circuit disagrees on (1 − δ k)/2 fraction of the input, for δ ∈ (0, 1) and k ∈ N. We show that this process can not be car ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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not be carried out in a blackbox way by a circuit of depth d and size 2 o(k1/d) or by a nondeterministic circuit of size o(k / log k) (and arbitrary depth). In particular, for k = 2 Ω(n) , such hardness amplification can not be done in ATIME(O(1), 2 o(n)). Therefore, hardness amplification in general requires a
Hardness amplification of weakly verifiable puzzles
 Proceedings of the second Theory of Cryptography Conference
, 2005
"... Abstract. Is it harder to solve many puzzles than it is to solve just one? This question has different answers, depending on how you define puzzles. For the case of inverting oneway functions it was shown by Yao that solving many independent instances simultaneously is indeed harder than solving a ..."
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Cited by 25 (1 self)
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with probability more than ε n. We also demonstrate that when the puzzles are not even weakly verifiable, solving many puzzles may be no harder than solving a single one. Hardness amplification of weakly verifiable puzzles turns out to be closely related to the reduction of soundness error under parallel
Amplification by ReadOnce Formulae
, 1995
"... Moore and Shannon have shown that relays with arbitrarily high reliability can be built from relays with arbitrarily poor reliability. Valiant used similar methods to construct monotone readonce formulae of size O(n ff+2 ) (where ff = log p 5\Gamma1 2 ' 3:27) that amplify (/ \Gamma 1 n ; ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Moore and Shannon have shown that relays with arbitrarily high reliability can be built from relays with arbitrarily poor reliability. Valiant used similar methods to construct monotone readonce formulae of size O(n ff+2 ) (where ff = log p 5\Gamma1 2 ' 3:27) that amplify (/ \Gamma 1 n
Efficient and Provable Security Amplifications
 CSR9529, Computer Science, Dept. of Algorithms and Architecture, CWI
, 1995
"... Even, Goldreich and Micali showed at Crypto'89 that the existence of signature schemes secure against known message attacks implies the existence of schemes secure against adaptively chosen message attacks. Unfortunately, this transformation leads to a rather impractical scheme. We exhibit a ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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similar security amplification, which takes the given scheme to a new signature scheme that is not even existentially forgeable under adaptively chosen message attacks. Additionally, however, our transformation will be practical: The complexity of the resulting scheme is twice that of the original
Mechanisms of Gene Duplication and Amplification
"... Changes in gene copy numberare among themost frequentmutational events in all genomes andwere among themutations forwhich a physical basiswas first known. Yetmechanisms of gene duplication remain uncertain because formation rates are difficult to measure and mechanisms may vary with position in a ge ..."
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genome. Duplications are compared here to deletions, which seem formally similar but can arise at very different rates by distinct mechanisms. Methods of assessing duplication rates and dependencies are described with several proposed formation mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on duplications formed
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