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The tragedy of the commons
 Science
, 1968
"... At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: “Both sides in the arms race are... confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this d ..."
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Cited by 2414 (0 self)
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At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: “Both sides in the arms race are... confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.” I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there
Strategies of Discourse Comprehension
, 1983
"... El Salvador, Guatemala is a, study in black and white. On the left is a collection of extreme MarxistLeninist groups led by what one diplomat calls “a pretty faceless bunch of people.’ ’ On the right is an entrenched elite that has dominated Central America’s most populous country since a CIAbacke ..."
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Cited by 601 (27 self)
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El Salvador, Guatemala is a, study in black and white. On the left is a collection of extreme MarxistLeninist groups led by what one diplomat calls “a pretty faceless bunch of people.’ ’ On the right is an entrenched elite that has dominated Central America’s most populous country since a CIAbacked coup deposed the reformist government of Col. Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. Moderates of the political center. embattled but alive in E1 Salvador, have virtually disappeared in Guatemalajoining more than 30.000 victims of terror over the last tifteen vears. “The situation in Guatemala is much more serious than in EI Salvador, ” declares one Latin American diplomat. “The oligarchy is that much more reactionary. and the choices are far fewer. “ ‘Zero’: The Guatemalan oligarchs hated Jimmy Carter for cutting off U.S. military aid in 1977 to protest humanrights abusesand the rightwingers hired marimba bands and set off firecrackers on the night Ronald Reagan was elected. They considered Reagan an ideological kinsman and believed they had a special
The relationship between return and market value of common stocks
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1981
"... This study examines the empirical relattonship between the return and the total market value of NYSE common stocks. It is found that smaller firms have had htgher risk adjusted returns, on average, than larger lirms. This ‘size effect ’ has been in existence for at least forty years and is evidence ..."
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Cited by 742 (0 self)
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This study examines the empirical relattonship between the return and the total market value of NYSE common stocks. It is found that smaller firms have had htgher risk adjusted returns, on average, than larger lirms. This ‘size effect ’ has been in existence for at least forty years and is evidence
The struggle to govern the commons
 Science
, 2003
"... Human institutions—ways of organizing activities—affect the resilience of the environment. Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable communities and buffered from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries, although they often fail when rapid change occu ..."
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Cited by 624 (14 self)
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occurs. Ideal conditions for governance are increasingly rare. Critical problems, such as transboundary pollution, tropical deforestation, and climate change, are at larger scales and involve nonlocal influences. Promising strategies for addressing these problems include dialogue among interested
Testing for Common Trends
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1988
"... Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix ..."
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Cited by 455 (7 self)
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Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient
Knowledge and Common Knowledge in a Distributed Environment
 Journal of the ACM
, 1984
"... : Reasoning about knowledge seems to play a fundamental role in distributed systems. Indeed, such reasoning is a central part of the informal intuitive arguments used in the design of distributed protocols. Communication in a distributed system can be viewed as the act of transforming the system&apo ..."
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Cited by 577 (55 self)
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corresponds to knowledge that is "distributed" among the members of the group, while common knowledge corresponds to a fact being "publicly known". The relationship between common knowledge and a variety of desirable actions in a distributed system is illustrated. Furthermore, it is shown
Applications Of Circumscription To Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1986
"... We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects o ..."
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Cited by 536 (12 self)
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We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects
Near Optimal Signal Recovery From Random Projections: Universal Encoding Strategies?
, 2004
"... Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear m ..."
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Cited by 1513 (20 self)
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Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear measurements do we need to recover objects from this class to within accuracy ɛ? This paper shows that if the objects of interest are sparse or compressible in the sense that the reordered entries of a signal f ∈ F decay like a powerlaw (or if the coefficient sequence of f in a fixed basis decays like a powerlaw), then it is possible to reconstruct f to within very high accuracy from a small number of random measurements. typical result is as follows: we rearrange the entries of f (or its coefficients in a fixed basis) in decreasing order of magnitude f  (1) ≥ f  (2) ≥... ≥ f  (N), and define the weakℓp ball as the class F of those elements whose entries obey the power decay law f  (n) ≤ C · n −1/p. We take measurements 〈f, Xk〉, k = 1,..., K, where the Xk are Ndimensional Gaussian
Very simple classification rules perform well on most commonly used datasets
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machin ..."
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Cited by 542 (5 self)
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of pruning methods (e.g. Buntine & Niblett, 1992; Clark & Niblett, 1989; Mingers, 1989), where accuracy is rarely seen to decrease as pruning becomes more severe (for example, see Table 1) 1. This is so even when rules are pruned to the extreme, as happened with the "Errcomp &
Cooperative strategies and capacity theorems for relay networks
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2005
"... Abstract—Coding strategies that exploit node cooperation are developed for relay networks. Two basic schemes are studied: the relays decodeandforward the source message to the destination, or they compressandforward their channel outputs to the destination. The decodeandforward scheme is a va ..."
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Cited by 733 (19 self)
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Abstract—Coding strategies that exploit node cooperation are developed for relay networks. Two basic schemes are studied: the relays decodeandforward the source message to the destination, or they compressandforward their channel outputs to the destination. The decodeandforward scheme is a
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