Results 1  10
of
1,307,948
Financial Dependence and Growth
 American Economic Review
, 1998
"... This paper examines whether nancial development facilitates economic growth by scrutinizing one rationale for such a relationship; that nancial development reduces the costs of external nance to rms. Speci cally, we ask whether industrial sectors that are relatively more in need of external nance de ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1086 (26 self)
 Add to MetaCart
develop disproportionately faster in countries with more developed nancial markets. We nd this to be true in a large sample of countries over the 1980s. We show this result is unlikely to be driven by omitted variables, outliers, or reverse causality. (JEL O4, F3, G1) A large literature, dating at least
Incorporating nonlocal information into information extraction systems by Gibbs sampling
 IN ACL
, 2005
"... Most current statistical natural language processing models use only local features so as to permit dynamic programming in inference, but this makes them unable to fully account for the long distance structure that is prevalent in language use. We show how to solve this dilemma with Gibbs sampling, ..."
Abstract

Cited by 730 (25 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Most current statistical natural language processing models use only local features so as to permit dynamic programming in inference, but this makes them unable to fully account for the long distance structure that is prevalent in language use. We show how to solve this dilemma with Gibbs sampling
Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation.
 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
, 1990
"... ABSTRACT Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradientecho techniques in high fields, we demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with imag ..."
Abstract

Cited by 648 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation leveldependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulininduced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can
Lag length selection and the construction of unit root tests with good size and power
 Econometrica
, 2001
"... It is widely known that when there are errors with a movingaverage root close to −1, a high order augmented autoregression is necessary for unit root tests to have good size, but that information criteria such as the AIC and the BIC tend to select a truncation lag (k) that is very small. We conside ..."
Abstract

Cited by 558 (14 self)
 Add to MetaCart
consider a class of Modified Information Criteria (MIC) with a penalty factor that is sample dependent. It takes into account the fact that the bias in the sum of the autoregressive coefficients is highly dependent on k and adapts to the type of deterministic components present. We use a local asymptotic
PROBABILITY INEQUALITIES FOR SUMS OF BOUNDED RANDOM VARIABLES
, 1962
"... Upper bounds are derived for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt. It is assumed that the range of each summand of S is bounded or bounded above. The bounds for Pr(SES> nt) depend only on the endpoints of the ranges of the s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2215 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
of the smumands and the mean, or the mean and the variance of S. These results are then used to obtain analogous inequalities for certain sums of dependent random variables such as U statistics and the sum of a random sample without replacement from a finite population.
Critical values for cointegration tests
 Eds.), LongRun Economic Relationship: Readings in Cointegration
, 1991
"... This paper provides tables of critical values for some popular tests of cointegration and unit roots. Although these tables are necessarily based on computer simulations, they are much more accurate than those previously available. The results of the simulation experiments are summarized by means of ..."
Abstract

Cited by 506 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
of response surface regressions in which critical values depend on the sample size. From these regressions, asymptotic critical values can be read off directly, and critical values for any finite sample size can easily be computed with a hand calculator. Added in 2010 version: A new appendix contains
ClassBased ngram Models of Natural Language
 Computational Linguistics
, 1992
"... We address the problem of predicting a word from previous words in a sample of text. In particular we discuss ngram models based on calsses of words. We also discuss several statistical algoirthms for assigning words to classes based on the frequency of their cooccurrence with other words. We find ..."
Abstract

Cited by 986 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We address the problem of predicting a word from previous words in a sample of text. In particular we discuss ngram models based on calsses of words. We also discuss several statistical algoirthms for assigning words to classes based on the frequency of their cooccurrence with other words. We
Analysis, Modeling and Generation of SelfSimilar VBR Video Traffic
, 1994
"... We present a detailed statistical analysis of a 2hour long empirical sample of VBR video. The sample was obtained by applying a simple intraframe video compression code to an action movie. The main findings of our analysis are (1) the tail behavior of the marginal bandwidth distribution can be accu ..."
Abstract

Cited by 548 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a detailed statistical analysis of a 2hour long empirical sample of VBR video. The sample was obtained by applying a simple intraframe video compression code to an action movie. The main findings of our analysis are (1) the tail behavior of the marginal bandwidth distribution can
Random forests
 Machine Learning
, 2001
"... Abstract. Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the fo ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3613 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees
Normalization for cDNA microarray data: a robust composite method addressing single and multiple slide systematic variation
, 2002
"... There are many sources of systematic variation in cDNA microarray experiments which affect the measured gene expression levels (e.g. differences in labeling efficiency between the two fluorescent dyes). The term normalization refers to the process of removing such variation. A constant adjustment is ..."
Abstract

Cited by 718 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
normalization methods that are based on robust local regression and account for intensity and spatial dependence in dye biases for different types of cDNA microarray experiments. The selection of appropriate controls for normalization is discussed and a novel set of controls (microarray sample pool, MSP
Results 1  10
of
1,307,948