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The Nash Bargaining Solution in Economic Modeling
 Rand Journal of Economics
, 1986
"... This article establishes the relationship between the static axiomatic theory of bargaining and the sequential strategic approach to bargaining. We consider two strategic models of alternating offers. The models differ in the source of the incentive of the bargaining parties to reach agreement: the ..."
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Cited by 556 (1 self)
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the incentive to settle and with the proper disagreement jfoint chosen. The results provide a guide for the application of the Nash bargaining solution in economic modelling. 1.
Impulses and Physiological States in Theoretical Models of Nerve Membrane
 Biophysical Journal
, 1961
"... ABSTRACT Van der Pol's equation for a relaxation oscillator is generalized by the addition of terms to produce a pair of nonlinear differential equations with either a stable singular point or a limit cycle. The resulting "BVP model " has two variables of state, representing excitabi ..."
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Cited by 496 (0 self)
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can be divided into regions corresponding to the physiological states of nerve fiber (resting, active, refractory, enhanced, depressed, etc.) to form a "physiological state diagram, " with the help of which many physiological phenomena can be summarized. A properly chosen projection from
Formalising trust as a computational concept
, 1994
"... Trust is a judgement of unquestionable utility — as humans we use it every day of our lives. However, trust has suffered from an imperfect understanding, a plethora of definitions, and informal use in the literature and in everyday life. It is common to say “I trust you, ” but what does that mean? T ..."
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Cited by 518 (5 self)
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Artificial Intelligence (DAI) is raised. The thesis presents a testbed populated by simple trusting agents which substantiates the utility of the formalism. The formalism provides a step in the direction of a proper understanding and definition of human trust. A contribution of the thesis is its detailed
Knowledgebased Analysis of Microarray Gene Expression Data By Using Support Vector Machines
, 2000
"... We introduce a method of functionally classifying genes by using gene expression data from DNA microarray hybridization experiments. The method is based on the theory of support vector machines (SVMs). SVMs are considered a supervised computer learning method because they exploit prior knowledge of ..."
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Cited by 514 (8 self)
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We introduce a method of functionally classifying genes by using gene expression data from DNA microarray hybridization experiments. The method is based on the theory of support vector machines (SVMs). SVMs are considered a supervised computer learning method because they exploit prior knowledge of gene function to identify unknown genes of similar function from expression data. SVMs avoid several problems associated with unsupervised clustering methods, such as hierarchical clustering and selforganizing maps. SVMs have many mathematical features that make them attractive for gene expression analysis, including their exibility in choosing a similarity function, sparseness of solution when dealing with large data sets, the ability t...
Assessing agreement on classification tasks: the kappa statistic
 Computational Linguistics
, 1996
"... Currently, computational linguists and cognitive scientists working in the area of discourse and dialogue argue that their subjective judgments are reliable using several different statistics, none of which are easily interpretable or comparable to each other. Meanwhile, researchers in content analy ..."
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Cited by 829 (9 self)
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Currently, computational linguists and cognitive scientists working in the area of discourse and dialogue argue that their subjective judgments are reliable using several different statistics, none of which are easily interpretable or comparable to each other. Meanwhile, researchers in content analysis have already experienced the same difficulties and come up with a solution in the kappa statistic. We discuss what is wrong with reliability measures as they are currently used for discourse and dialogue work in computational linguistics and cognitive science, and argue that we would be better off as a field adopting techniques from content analysis. 1
A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms
 Foundations of Genetic Algorithms
, 1991
"... This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or d ..."
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Cited by 512 (32 self)
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This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or differential equations, which are verified through computer simulations. The analysis provides convenient approximate or exact solutions as well as useful convergence time and growth ratio estimates. The paper recommends practical application of the analyses and suggests a number of paths for more detailed analytical investigation of selection techniques. Keywords: proportionate selection, ranking selection, tournament selection, Genitor, takeover time, time complexity, growth ratio. 1
Application of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies
 SUBMITTED TO MBE 2005
, 2005
"... The evolutionary history of a set of taxa is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree, and this model has greatly facilitated the discussion and testing of hypotheses. However, it is well known that more complex evolutionary scenarios are poorly described by such models. Further, even when evoluti ..."
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Cited by 867 (15 self)
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The evolutionary history of a set of taxa is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree, and this model has greatly facilitated the discussion and testing of hypotheses. However, it is well known that more complex evolutionary scenarios are poorly described by such models. Further, even when evolution proceeds in a treelike manner, analysis of the data may not be best served by using methods that enforce a tree structure, but rather by a richer visualization of the data to evaluate its properties, at least as an essential first step. Thus, phylogenetic networks should be employed when reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, recombination, or gene duplication andloss are believed to be involved, and, even in the absence of such events, phylogenetic networks have a useful role to play. This paper reviews the terminology used for phylogenetic networks and covers both split networks and reticulate networks, how they are defined and how they can be interpreted. Additionally, the paper outlines the beginnings of a comprehensive statistical framework for applying split network methods. We show how split networks can represent confidence sets of trees and introduce a conservative statistical test for whether the conflicting signal in a network is treelike. Finally, this paper describes a new program SplitsTree4, an interactive and comprehensive tool for inferring different types of phylogenetic networks from sequences, distances and trees.
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is onehalf. Although there has been much discussion of Bayesian hypothesis testing in the context of criticism of P values, less attention has been given to the Bayes factor as a practical tool of applied statistics. In this paper we review and discuss the uses of Bayes factors in the context of five scientific applications in genetics, sports, ecology, sociology and psychology.
SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
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Cited by 757 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review
 Journal of Economic Literature
, 2002
"... www.people.cornell.edu/pages/edo1/. ..."
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