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28,861
Markov games as a framework for multiagent reinforcement learning
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MACHINE LEARNING
, 1994
"... In the Markov decision process (MDP) formalization of reinforcement learning, a single adaptive agent interacts with an environment defined by a probabilistic transition function. In this solipsistic view, secondary agents can only be part of the environment and are therefore fixed in their behavior ..."
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Cited by 601 (13 self)
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In the Markov decision process (MDP) formalization of reinforcement learning, a single adaptive agent interacts with an environment defined by a probabilistic transition function. In this solipsistic view, secondary agents can only be part of the environment and are therefore fixed
Bisimulation through probabilistic testing
 in “Conference Record of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL
, 1989
"... We propose a language for testing concurrent processes and examine its strength in terms of the processes that are distinguished by a test. By using probabilistic transition systems as the underlying semantic model, we show how a testing algorithm can distinguish, with a probability arbitrarily clos ..."
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Cited by 529 (14 self)
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We propose a language for testing concurrent processes and examine its strength in terms of the processes that are distinguished by a test. By using probabilistic transition systems as the underlying semantic model, we show how a testing algorithm can distinguish, with a probability arbitrarily
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1999
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of paramet ..."
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Cited by 709 (5 self)
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of parameters in a latent variable model closely related to factor analysis. We consider the properties of the associated likelihood function, giving an EM algorithm for estimating the principal subspace iteratively, and discuss, with illustrative examples, the advantages conveyed by this probabilistic approach
Probabilistic PartofSpeech Tagging Using Decision Trees
, 1994
"... In this paper, a new probabilistic tagging method is presented which avoids problems that Markov Model based taggers face, when they have to estimate transition probabilities from sparse data. In this tagging method, transition probabilities are estimated using a decision tree. Based on this method, ..."
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Cited by 1058 (9 self)
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In this paper, a new probabilistic tagging method is presented which avoids problems that Markov Model based taggers face, when they have to estimate transition probabilities from sparse data. In this tagging method, transition probabilities are estimated using a decision tree. Based on this method
Probabilistic Outputs for Support Vector Machines and Comparisons to Regularized Likelihood Methods
 ADVANCES IN LARGE MARGIN CLASSIFIERS
, 1999
"... The output of a classifier should be a calibrated posterior probability to enable postprocessing. Standard SVMs do not provide such probabilities. One method to create probabilities is to directly train a kernel classifier with a logit link function and a regularized maximum likelihood score. Howev ..."
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Cited by 1051 (0 self)
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The output of a classifier should be a calibrated posterior probability to enable postprocessing. Standard SVMs do not provide such probabilities. One method to create probabilities is to directly train a kernel classifier with a logit link function and a regularized maximum likelihood score
Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions
 Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section Working Paper No. 379
, 1997
"... This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for nonrandom attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are (1) on average, performa ..."
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Cited by 529 (19 self)
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This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for nonrandom attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are (1) on average
A Neural Probabilistic Language Model
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2003
"... A goal of statistical language modeling is to learn the joint probability function of sequences of words in a language. This is intrinsically difficult because of the curse of dimensionality: a word sequence on which the model will be tested is likely to be different from all the word sequences seen ..."
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Cited by 447 (19 self)
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A goal of statistical language modeling is to learn the joint probability function of sequences of words in a language. This is intrinsically difficult because of the curse of dimensionality: a word sequence on which the model will be tested is likely to be different from all the word sequences
Some simple effective approximations to the 2Poisson model for probabilistic weighted retrieval
 In Proceedings of SIGIR’94
, 1994
"... The 2–Poisson model for term frequencies is used to suggest ways of incorporating certain variables in probabilistic models for information retrieval. The variables concerned are withindocument term frequency, document length, and withinquery term frequency. Simple weighting functions are develope ..."
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Cited by 460 (14 self)
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The 2–Poisson model for term frequencies is used to suggest ways of incorporating certain variables in probabilistic models for information retrieval. The variables concerned are withindocument term frequency, document length, and withinquery term frequency. Simple weighting functions
Learning to rank using gradient descent
 In ICML
, 2005
"... We investigate using gradient descent methods for learning ranking functions; we propose a simple probabilistic cost function, and we introduce RankNet, an implementation of these ideas using a neural network to model the underlying ranking function. We present test results on toy data and on data f ..."
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Cited by 534 (17 self)
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We investigate using gradient descent methods for learning ranking functions; we propose a simple probabilistic cost function, and we introduce RankNet, an implementation of these ideas using a neural network to model the underlying ranking function. We present test results on toy data and on data
Singular Combinatorics
 ICM 2002 VOL. III 13
, 2002
"... Combinatorial enumeration leads to counting generating functions presenting a wide variety of analytic types. Properties of generating functions at singularities encode valuable information regarding asymptotic counting and limit probability distributions present in large random structures. " ..."
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Cited by 800 (10 self)
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Combinatorial enumeration leads to counting generating functions presenting a wide variety of analytic types. Properties of generating functions at singularities encode valuable information regarding asymptotic counting and limit probability distributions present in large random structures
Results 1  10
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28,861