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Supplementary material 1 Previously proposed recurrences
"... According to notation in [1]: M is the number of states in an HMM, End is the silent end state, Start is the silent start state, Ti,j is transition probability between states i and j, Ei(γ) is probability of emitting symbol γ from state i, P(X) is probability of sequence X, xk is the kth letter in i ..."
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According to notation in [1]: M is the number of states in an HMM, End is the silent end state, Start is the silent start state, Ti,j is transition probability between states i and j, Ei(γ) is probability of emitting symbol γ from state i, P(X) is probability of sequence X, xk is the kth letter in input sequence X of length L, where Xk is the sequence of letters from the beginning of sequence X up to the sequence position k. f(Xk, n) is the forward probability, i.e. is the sum of probabilities of all state paths that finish in state n at sequence position k. ti,j(Xk, l) denotes the weighted sum of probabilities of state paths that finish in state l at sequence position k of sequence X and that contain at least one i → j transition, where the weight for each state path is equal to its number of i → j transitions. ei(γ, Xk, l) denotes the weighted sum of probabilities of state paths that finish at sequence position k in state l for which state i reads letter γ at least once, the weight for each state path being equal to the number of times state i reads letter γ. 1.1 Transition estimate recurrences Initialization f(X0, m) = ti,j(X0, m) = 0. 1, if m = Start
A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Cointegrated Systems
 ECONOMETRICA
, 1993
"... Efficient estimators of cointegrating vectors are presented for systems involving deterministic components and variables of differing, higher orders of integration. The estimators are computed using GLS or OLS, and Wald Statistics constructed from these estimators have asymptotic x2 distributions. T ..."
Abstract

Cited by 524 (3 self)
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. These and previously proposed estimators of cointegrating vectors are used to study longrun U.S. money (Ml) demand. Ml demand is found to be stable over 19001989; the 95 % confidence intervals for the income elasticity and interest rate semielasticity are (.88,1.06) and (.13,.08), respectively. Estimates based
Statistical phrasebased translation
, 2003
"... We propose a new phrasebased translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrasebased translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrasebased models outpe ..."
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Cited by 944 (11 self)
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We propose a new phrasebased translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrasebased translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrasebased models
SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features
 ECCV
"... Abstract. In this paper, we present a novel scale and rotationinvariant interest point detector and descriptor, coined SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features). It approximates or even outperforms previously proposed schemes with respect to repeatability, distinctiveness, and robustness, yet can be comp ..."
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Cited by 897 (12 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we present a novel scale and rotationinvariant interest point detector and descriptor, coined SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features). It approximates or even outperforms previously proposed schemes with respect to repeatability, distinctiveness, and robustness, yet can
Predicting Internet Network Distance with CoordinatesBased Approaches
 In INFOCOM
, 2001
"... In this paper, we propose to use coordinatesbased mechanisms in a peertopeer architecture to predict Internet network distance (i.e. roundtrip propagation and transmission delay) . We study two mechanisms. The first is a previously proposed scheme, called the triangulated heuristic, which is bas ..."
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Cited by 631 (6 self)
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In this paper, we propose to use coordinatesbased mechanisms in a peertopeer architecture to predict Internet network distance (i.e. roundtrip propagation and transmission delay) . We study two mechanisms. The first is a previously proposed scheme, called the triangulated heuristic, which
A practical public key cryptosystem provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack
 CRYPTO '98
, 1998
"... A new public key cryptosystem is proposed and analyzed. The scheme is quite practical, and is provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. There appears to be no previous cryptosystem in the literature that enjoys both of these properties simu ..."
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Cited by 540 (17 self)
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A new public key cryptosystem is proposed and analyzed. The scheme is quite practical, and is provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. There appears to be no previous cryptosystem in the literature that enjoys both of these properties
Comparing Predictive Accuracy
 JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS, 13, 253265
, 1995
"... We propose and evaluate explicit tests of the null hypothesis of no difference in the accuracy of two competing forecasts. In contrast to previously developed tests, a wide variety of accuracy measures can be used (in particular, the loss function need not be quadratic, and need not even be symmetri ..."
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Cited by 1346 (23 self)
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We propose and evaluate explicit tests of the null hypothesis of no difference in the accuracy of two competing forecasts. In contrast to previously developed tests, a wide variety of accuracy measures can be used (in particular, the loss function need not be quadratic, and need not even
Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars
, 1990
"... Treeadjoining grammars (TAG) have been proposed as a formalism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain of syntactic locality that TAGs provide should aid in localizing semantic dependencies as well, in turn serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We dem ..."
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Cited by 774 (43 self)
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Treeadjoining grammars (TAG) have been proposed as a formalism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain of syntactic locality that TAGs provide should aid in localizing semantic dependencies as well, in turn serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We
A bayesian hierarchical model for learning natural scene categories
 In CVPR
, 2005
"... We propose a novel approach to learn and recognize natural scene categories. Unlike previous work [9, 17], it does not require experts to annotate the training set. We represent the image of a scene by a collection of local regions, denoted as codewords obtained by unsupervised learning. Each region ..."
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Cited by 948 (15 self)
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We propose a novel approach to learn and recognize natural scene categories. Unlike previous work [9, 17], it does not require experts to annotate the training set. We represent the image of a scene by a collection of local regions, denoted as codewords obtained by unsupervised learning. Each
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