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14,192
Risk as Feelings
, 2001
"... Virtually all current theories of choice under risk or uncertainty are cognitive and consequentialist. They assume that people assess the desirability and likelihood of possible outcomes of choice alternatives and integrate this information through some type of expectationbased calculus to arrive a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 501 (21 self)
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Virtually all current theories of choice under risk or uncertainty are cognitive and consequentialist. They assume that people assess the desirability and likelihood of possible outcomes of choice alternatives and integrate this information through some type of expectationbased calculus to arrive
Alternatingtime Temporal Logic
 Journal of the ACM
, 1997
"... Temporal logic comes in two varieties: lineartime temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branchingtime temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general var ..."
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Cited by 620 (53 self)
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variety of temporal logic: alternatingtime temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes of games, such as the game in which the system and the environment alternate moves. While lineartime and branchingtime logics are natural specification languages
Choices, values and frames.
 American Psychologist,
, 1984
"... Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The stu ..."
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Cited by 684 (9 self)
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. The expectation of a monetary gamble is a weighted average, where each possible outcome is weighted by its probability of occurrence. The expectation of the gamble in this example is .85 X $1000 + .15 X $0 = $850, which exceeds the expectation of $800 associated with the sure thing. The preference for the sure
Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex.
 Cognition,
, 1994
"... Abstract Following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, humans develop a defect in reallife decisionmaking, which contrasts with otherwise normal intellectual functions. Currently, there is no neuropsychological probe to detect in the laboratory, and the cognitive and neural mechanisms r ..."
Abstract

Cited by 534 (14 self)
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responsible for this defect have resisted explanation. Here, using a novel task which simulates reallife decisionmaking in the way it factors uncertainty of premises and outcomes, as well as reward and punishment, we find that prefrontal patients, unlike controls, are oblivious to the future consequences
Boosting a Weak Learning Algorithm By Majority
, 1995
"... We present an algorithm for improving the accuracy of algorithms for learning binary concepts. The improvement is achieved by combining a large number of hypotheses, each of which is generated by training the given learning algorithm on a different set of examples. Our algorithm is based on ideas pr ..."
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Cited by 516 (16 self)
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upper bounds known today. We show that the number of hypotheses that are combined by our algorithm is the smallest number possible. Other outcomes of our analysis are results regarding the representational power of threshold circuits, the relation between learnability and compression, and a method
Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations
 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
, 2002
"... Mediation is said to occur when a causal effect of some variable X on an outcome Y is explained by some intervening variable M. The authors recommend that with small to moderate samples, bootstrap methods (B. Efron & R. Tibshirani, 1993) be used to assess mediation. Bootstrap tests are powerful ..."
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Cited by 696 (4 self)
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Mediation is said to occur when a causal effect of some variable X on an outcome Y is explained by some intervening variable M. The authors recommend that with small to moderate samples, bootstrap methods (B. Efron & R. Tibshirani, 1993) be used to assess mediation. Bootstrap tests are powerful
Rules, discretion, and reputation in a model of monetary policy
 JOURNAL OF MONETARY ECONOMICS
, 1983
"... In a discretionary regime the monetary authority can print more money and create more inflation than people expect. But, although these inflation surprises can have some benefits, they cannot arise systematically in equilibrium when people understand the policymakor's incentives and form their ..."
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Cited by 812 (9 self)
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the policymaker and the private agents, it is possible that reputational forces can substitute for formal rules. Here, we develop an example of a reputational equilibrium where the outcomes turn out to be weighted averages of those from discretion and those from the ideal rule. In particular, the rates
StrategyProofness and Arrow’s Conditions: Existence and Correspondence Theorems for Voting Procedures and Social Welfare Functions
 J. Econ. Theory
, 1975
"... Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I pro ..."
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Cited by 553 (0 self)
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welfare functions. Third, Arrow’s general possibility theorem is proven in a new manner. 1. INTR~OUOTI~N Almost every participant in the formal deliberations of a committee realizes that situations may occur where he can manipulate the outcome of the committee’s vote by misrepresenting his preferences
Possible Outcomes and Effects upon Stakeholders
, 2003
"... As population increases, the number of water bodies meeting water quality standards tends to decrease. The 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) addresses the issues of point and nonpoint source pollution by requiring states to compose lists of waters that do not meet water quality standards and develop Total ..."
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As population increases, the number of water bodies meeting water quality standards tends to decrease. The 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA) addresses the issues of point and nonpoint source pollution by requiring states to compose lists of waters that do not meet water quality standards and develop Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) for those waters. This requirement of the CWA remained inactive until EPA and states suffered lawsuits from environmental groups and concerned citizens. The result prompted a flurry to develop TMDLs in compliance with consent decrees. A variety of methods and models serve as tools to calculate existing loads, load reductions and allocations. The purpose of this study is threefold 1) to examine two methods of TMDL development, Flow Duration (FD) used in Kansas and Hydrologic Simulation ProgramFortran (HSPF) used in Virginia; 2) to compare results of both methods in the same watershed of Virginia; and, 3) to evaluate stakeholder involvement in the TMDL process. A variety of stakeholders such as agencies, towns and industry, agribusiness, and concerned citizen/environmentalists are faced with meeting TMDL reductions and allocations. It is important that the TMDL process and implications are understood by all stakeholders. iii
Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score
, 2000
"... We are interested in estimating the average effect of a binary treatment on a scalar outcome. If assignment to the treatment is independent of the potential outcomes given pretreatment variables, biases associated with simple treatmentcontrol average comparisons can be removed by adjusting for diff ..."
Abstract

Cited by 416 (35 self)
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We are interested in estimating the average effect of a binary treatment on a scalar outcome. If assignment to the treatment is independent of the potential outcomes given pretreatment variables, biases associated with simple treatmentcontrol average comparisons can be removed by adjusting
Results 1  10
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