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The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Analysis
 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
, 2002
"... We exploit differences in early colonial experience to estimate the effect of institutions on economic performance. Our argument is that Europeans adopted very different colonization policies in different colonies, with different associated institutions. The choice of colonization strategy was, at l ..."
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Cited by 1585 (38 self)
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We exploit differences in early colonial experience to estimate the effect of institutions on economic performance. Our argument is that Europeans adopted very different colonization policies in different colonies, with different associated institutions. The choice of colonization strategy was, at least in part, determined by the feasibility of whether Europeans could settle in the colony. In places where Europeans faced high mortality rates, they could not settle and they were more likely to set up worse (extractive) institutions. These early institutions persisted to the present. We document these hypotheses in the data. Exploiting differences in mortality rates faced by soldiers, bishops and sailors in the colonies during the 18th and 19th centuries as an instrument for current institutions, we estimate large effects of institutions on income per capita. Our estimates imply that a change from the worst (Zaire) to the best (US or New Zealand) institutions in our sample would be associated with a five fold increase in income per capita.
ZTree: Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments, Working paper No
, 1999
"... 2.2.2 Startup of the Experimenter PC............................................................................................... 9 2.2.3 Startup of the Subject PCs....................................................................................................... 9 ..."
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Cited by 1956 (33 self)
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2.2.2 Startup of the Experimenter PC............................................................................................... 9 2.2.3 Startup of the Subject PCs....................................................................................................... 9
The SGI Origin: A ccNUMA highly scalable server
 In Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA’97
, 1997
"... The SGI Origin 2000 is a cachecoherent nonuniform memory access (ccNUMA) multiprocessor designed and manufactured by Silicon Graphics, Inc. The Origin system was designed from the ground up as a multiprocessor capable of scaling to both small and large processor counts without any bandwidth, laten ..."
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Cited by 491 (0 self)
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, latency, or cost cliffs.The Origin system consists of up to 512 nodes interconnected by a scalable Craylink network. Each node consists of one or two RlOOOO processors, up to 4 GB of coherent memory, and a connection to a portion of the X I0 10 subsystem. This paper discusses the motivation for building
Panel Cointegration; Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests, With an Application to the PPP Hypothesis; New Results. Working paper
, 1997
"... We examine properties of residualbased tests for the null of no cointegration for dynamic panels in which both the shortrun dynamics and the longrun slope coefficients are permitted to be heterogeneous across individual members of the panel+ The tests also allow for individual heterogeneous fixed ..."
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Cited by 499 (13 self)
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We examine properties of residualbased tests for the null of no cointegration for dynamic panels in which both the shortrun dynamics and the longrun slope coefficients are permitted to be heterogeneous across individual members of the panel+ The tests also allow for individual heterogeneous fixed effects and trend terms, and we consider both pooled within dimension tests and group mean between dimension tests+ We derive limiting distributions for these and show that they are normal and free of nuisance parameters+ We also provide Monte Carlo evidence to demonstrate their small sample size and power performance, and we illustrate their use in testing purchasing power parity for the post–Bretton Woods period+ 1.
The selfduality equations on a Riemann surface
 Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., III. Ser
, 1987
"... In this paper we shall study a special class of solutions of the selfdual YangMills equations. The original selfduality equations which arose in mathematical physics were defined on Euclidean 4space. The physically relevant solutions were the ones with finite action—the socalled 'instanton ..."
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Cited by 524 (6 self)
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In this paper we shall study a special class of solutions of the selfdual YangMills equations. The original selfduality equations which arose in mathematical physics were defined on Euclidean 4space. The physically relevant solutions were the ones with finite action—the socalled &apos
A Trainable Document Summarizer
, 1995
"... To summarize is to reduce in complexity, and hence in length, while retaining some of the essential qualities of the original. This paper focusses on document extracts, a particular kind of computed document summary. ..."
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Cited by 525 (2 self)
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To summarize is to reduce in complexity, and hence in length, while retaining some of the essential qualities of the original. This paper focusses on document extracts, a particular kind of computed document summary.
Survey on Independent Component Analysis
 NEURAL COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
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Cited by 2241 (104 self)
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of the original data. Wellknown linear transformation methods include, for example, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. A recently developed linear transformation method is independent component analysis (ICA), in which the desired representation is the one that minimizes
A fast and high quality multilevel scheme for partitioning irregular graphs
 SIAM JOURNAL ON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING
, 1998
"... Recently, a number of researchers have investigated a class of graph partitioning algorithms that reduce the size of the graph by collapsing vertices and edges, partition the smaller graph, and then uncoarsen it to construct a partition for the original graph [Bui and Jones, Proc. ..."
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Cited by 1173 (16 self)
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Recently, a number of researchers have investigated a class of graph partitioning algorithms that reduce the size of the graph by collapsing vertices and edges, partition the smaller graph, and then uncoarsen it to construct a partition for the original graph [Bui and Jones, Proc.
Monitors: An Operating System Structuring Concept
 Communications of the ACM
, 1974
"... This is a digitized copy derived from an ACM copyrighted work. It is not guaranteed to be an accurate copy of the author's original work. This paper develops BrinchHansen's concept of a monitor as a method of structuring an operating system. It introduces a form of synchronization, descri ..."
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Cited by 561 (0 self)
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This is a digitized copy derived from an ACM copyrighted work. It is not guaranteed to be an accurate copy of the author's original work. This paper develops BrinchHansen's concept of a monitor as a method of structuring an operating system. It introduces a form of synchronization
Monte Carlo Statistical Methods
, 1998
"... This paper is also the originator of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods developed in the following chapters. The potential of these two simultaneous innovations has been discovered much latter by statisticians (Hastings 1970; Geman and Geman 1984) than by of physicists (see also Kirkpatrick et al. ..."
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Cited by 1475 (29 self)
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This paper is also the originator of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods developed in the following chapters. The potential of these two simultaneous innovations has been discovered much latter by statisticians (Hastings 1970; Geman and Geman 1984) than by of physicists (see also Kirkpatrick et al
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