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What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data
 Journal of Finance
, 1995
"... We investigate the determinants of capital structure choice by analyzing the financing decisions of public firms in the major industrialized countries. At an aggregate level, firm leverage is fairly similar across the G7 countries. We find that factors identified by previous studies as correlated i ..."
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Cited by 1027 (15 self)
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in the crosssection with firm leverage in the U.S., are similarly correlated in other countries as well. However, a deeper examination of the U.S. and foreign evidence suggests that the theoretical underpinnings of the observed correlations are still largely unresolved.
Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools
, 2002
"... In this paper we measure the effect of Catholic high school attendance on educational attainment and test scores. Because we do not have a good instrumental variable for Catholic school attendance, we develop new estimation methods based on the idea that the amount of selection on the observed expla ..."
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Cited by 538 (14 self)
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In this paper we measure the effect of Catholic high school attendance on educational attainment and test scores. Because we do not have a good instrumental variable for Catholic school attendance, we develop new estimation methods based on the idea that the amount of selection on the observed
An approach to correlate tandem mass spectral data of peptides with amino acid sequences in a protein database
 J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom
, 1994
"... A method to correlate the uninterpreted tandem mass spectra of peptides produced under low energy (lo50 eV) collision conditions with amino acid sequences in the Genpept database has been developed. In this method the protein database is searched to identify linear amino acid sequences within a mas ..."
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Cited by 944 (19 self)
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mass tolerance of * 1 u of the precursor ion molecular weight. A crosscorrelation function is then used to provide a measurement of similarity between the masstocharge ratios for the fragment ions predicted from amino acid sequences obtained from the database and the fragment ions observed
Image denoising using a scale mixture of Gaussians in the wavelet domain
 IEEE TRANS IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2003
"... We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vecto ..."
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Cited by 513 (17 self)
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vector and a hidden positive scalar multiplier. The latter modulates the local variance of the coefficients in the neighborhood, and is thus able to account for the empirically observed correlation between the coefficient amplitudes. Under this model, the Bayesian least squares estimate of each
Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1985
"... The presence of traders with superior information leads to a positive bidask spread even when the specialist is riskneutral and makes zero expected profits. The resulting transaction prices convey information, and the expectation of the average spread squared times volume is bounded by a number th ..."
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Cited by 1273 (5 self)
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that is independent of insider activity. The serial correlation of transaction price differences is a function of the proportion of the spread due to adverse selection. A bidask spread implies a divergence between observed returns and realizable returns. Observed returns are approximately realizable returns plus
Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear modelsâ€ť.
 Biometrika,
, 1986
"... SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating ..."
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Cited by 1526 (8 self)
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. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to the score equations for multivariate Gaussian outcomes. Asymptotic theory is presented for the general class of estimators. Specific cases in which we assume independence, m
A Tutorial on Visual Servo Control
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION
, 1996
"... This paper provides a tutorial introduction to visual servo control of robotic manipulators. Since the topic spans many disciplines our goal is limited to providing a basic conceptual framework. We begin by reviewing the prerequisite topics from robotics and computer vision, including a brief review ..."
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Cited by 839 (26 self)
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visual servo system must be capable of tracking image features in a sequence of images, we include an overview of featurebased and correlationbased methods for tracking. We conclude the tutorial with a number of observations on the current directions of the research field of visual servo control.
On PowerLaw Relationships of the Internet Topology
 IN SIGCOMM
, 1999
"... Despite the apparent randomness of the Internet, we discover some surprisingly simple powerlaws of the Internet topology. These powerlaws hold for three snapshots of the Internet, between November 1997 and December 1998, despite a 45% growth of its size during that period. We show that our powerl ..."
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Cited by 1670 (70 self)
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laws fit the real data very well resulting in correlation coefficients of 96% or higher. Our observations provide a novel perspective of the structure of the Internet. The powerlaws describe concisely skewed distributions of graph properties such as the node outdegree. In addition, these powerlaws can
Semantic similarity based on corpus statistics and lexical taxonomy
 Proc of 10th International Conference on Research in Computational Linguistics, ROCLINGâ€™97
, 1997
"... This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantifie ..."
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Cited by 873 (0 self)
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calculation. When tested on a common data set of word pair similarity ratings, the proposed approach outperforms other computational models. It gives the highest correlation value (r = 0.828) with a benchmark based on human similarity judgements, whereas an upper bound (r = 0.885) is observed when human
Regularization and variable selection via the Elastic Net.
 J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B
, 2005
"... Abstract We propose the elastic net, a new regularization and variable selection method. Real world data and a simulation study show that the elastic net often outperforms the lasso, while enjoying a similar sparsity of representation. In addition, the elastic net encourages a grouping effect, wher ..."
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Cited by 973 (11 self)
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, where strongly correlated predictors tend to be in (out) the model together. The elastic net is particularly useful when the number of predictors (p) is much bigger than the number of observations (n). By contrast, the lasso is not a very satisfactory variable selection method in the p n case
Results 1  10
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