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Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions
 Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section Working Paper No. 379
, 1997
"... This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for nonrandom attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are (1) on average, performa ..."
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Cited by 508 (19 self)
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This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for nonrandom attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are (1) on average, performance on standardized tests increases by four percentile points the �rst year students attend small classes; (2) the test score advantage of students in small classes expands by about one percentile point per year in subsequent years; (3) teacher aides and measured teacher characteristics have little effect; (4) class size has a larger effect for minority students and those on free lunch; (5) Hawthorne effects were unlikely. I.
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple
Is public expenditure productive
 Journal of Monetary Economics
, 1989
"... This paper considers the relationship between aggregate productivity and stock and flow governmentspending variables. The empirical results indicate that (i) the nonmilitary public capital stock is dramatically more important in determining productivity than is either the flow of nonmilitary or mil ..."
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Cited by 904 (2 self)
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This paper considers the relationship between aggregate productivity and stock and flow governmentspending variables. The empirical results indicate that (i) the nonmilitary public capital stock is dramatically more important in determining productivity than is either the flow of nonmilitary
Performance Pay and Productivity
 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
, 2000
"... Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a m ..."
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Cited by 498 (10 self)
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Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a
A model for technical inefficiency effects in a stochastic frontier production function for panel data
 Empirical Economics
, 1995
"... Abstract: A stochastic frontier production function is defined for panel data on firms, in which the nonnegative technical inetGciency effects are assumed to be a function of firmspecific variables and time. The inefficiency effects are assumed to be independently distributed as truncations of nor ..."
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Cited by 526 (4 self)
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Abstract: A stochastic frontier production function is defined for panel data on firms, in which the nonnegative technical inetGciency effects are assumed to be a function of firmspecific variables and time. The inefficiency effects are assumed to be independently distributed as truncations
Training Products of Experts by Minimizing Contrastive Divergence
, 2002
"... It is possible to combine multiple latentvariable models of the same data by multiplying their probability distributions together and then renormalizing. This way of combining individual “expert ” models makes it hard to generate samples from the combined model but easy to infer the values of the l ..."
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Cited by 829 (79 self)
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of the latent variables of each expert, because the combination rule ensures that the latent variables of different experts are conditionally independent when given the data. A product of experts (PoE) is therefore an interesting candidate for a perceptual system in which rapid inference is vital and generation
Trade Liberalization, Exit, and Productivity Improvements: Evidence from Chilean Plants
 Review of Economic Studies
, 2002
"... This paper empirically investigates the effects of liberalized trade on plant productivity in the case of Chile. Chile presents an interesting setting to study this relationship since it underwent a massive trade liberalization that significantly exposed its plants to competition from abroad during ..."
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Cited by 530 (14 self)
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the late 1970s and early 1980s. Methodologically, I approach this question in two steps. In the first step, I estimate a production function to obtain a measure of plant productivity. I estimate the production function semiparametrically to correct for the presence of selection and simultaneity biases
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