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Scheduling with Setup Costs and Monotone Penalties
"... We consider single processor preemptive scheduling with jobdependent setup times. In this model, a jobdependent setup time is incurred when a job is started for the first time, and each time it is restarted after preemption. This model is a common generalization of preemptive scheduling, and actua ..."
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We consider single processor preemptive scheduling with jobdependent setup times. In this model, a jobdependent setup time is incurred when a job is started for the first time, and each time it is restarted after preemption. This model is a common generalization of preemptive scheduling, and actually of nonpreemptive scheduling as well. The objective is to minimize the sum of any general nonnegative, nondecreasing cost functions of the completion times of the jobs — this generalizes objectives of minimizing weighted flow time, flowtime squared, tardiness or the number of tardy jobs among many others. Our main result is a randomized polynomial time O(1)speed O(1)approximation algorithm for this problem. Without speedup, no polynomial time finite multiplicative approximation is possible unless P = NP. We extend the approach of Bansal et al. (FOCS 2007) of rounding a linear programming relaxation which accounts for costs incurred due to the nonpreemptive nature of the schedule. A key new idea used in the rounding is that a point in the intersection polytope of two matroids can be decomposed as a convex combination of incidence vectors of sets that are independent in both matroids. In fact, we use this for the intersection of a partition matroid and a laminar matroid, in which case the decomposition can be found efficiently using network flows. Our approach gives a randomized polynomial time offline O(1)speed O(1)approximation algorithm for the broadcast scheduling problem with general cost functions as well.
Capacity of Fading Channels with Channel Side Information
, 1997
"... We obtain the Shannon capacity of a fading channel with channel side information at the transmitter and receiver, and at the receiver alone. The optimal power adaptation in the former case is "waterpouring" in time, analogous to waterpouring in frequency for timeinvariant frequencysele ..."
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Cited by 579 (23 self)
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selective fading channels. Inverting the channel results in a large capacity penalty in severe fading.
Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5350 (67 self)
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In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a long time, ‘variational ’ problems have been identified mostly with the ‘calculus of variations’. In that venerable subject, built around the minimization of integral functionals, constraints were relatively simple and much of the focus was on infinitedimensional function spaces. A major theme was the exploration of variations around a point, within the bounds imposed by the constraints, in order to help characterize solutions and portray them in terms of ‘variational principles’. Notions of perturbation, approximation and even generalized differentiability were extensively investigated. Variational theory progressed also to the study of socalled stationary points, critical points, and other indications of singularity that a point might have relative to its neighbors, especially in association with existence theorems for differential equations.
Regression Shrinkage and Selection Via the Lasso
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1994
"... We propose a new method for estimation in linear models. The "lasso" minimizes the residual sum of squares subject to the sum of the absolute value of the coefficients being less than a constant. Because of the nature of this constraint it tends to produce some coefficients that are exactl ..."
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Cited by 4055 (51 self)
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We propose a new method for estimation in linear models. The "lasso" minimizes the residual sum of squares subject to the sum of the absolute value of the coefficients being less than a constant. Because of the nature of this constraint it tends to produce some coefficients that are exactly zero and hence gives interpretable models. Our simulation studies suggest that the lasso enjoys some of the favourable properties of both subset selection and ridge regression. It produces interpretable models like subset selection and exhibits the stability of ridge regression. There is also an interesting relationship with recent work in adaptive function estimation by Donoho and Johnstone. The lasso idea is quite general and can be applied in a variety of statistical models: extensions to generalized regression models and treebased models are briefly described. Keywords: regression, subset selection, shrinkage, quadratic programming. 1 Introduction Consider the usual regression situation: we h...
Managing Energy and Server Resources in Hosting Centers
 In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles (SOSP
, 2001
"... Interact hosting centers serve multiple service sites from a common hardware base. This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture for resource management in a hosting center operating system, with an emphasis on energy as a driving resource management issue for large server cl ..."
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Cited by 558 (37 self)
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Interact hosting centers serve multiple service sites from a common hardware base. This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture for resource management in a hosting center operating system, with an emphasis on energy as a driving resource management issue for large server clusters. The goals are to provision server resources for cohosted services in a way that automatically adapts to offered load, improve the energy efficiency of server dusters by dynamically resizing the active server set, and respond to power supply disruptions or thermal events by degrading service in accordance with negotiated Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Our system is based on an economic approach to managing shared server resources, in which services "bid " for resources as a function of delivered performance. The system continuously monitors load and plans resource allotments by estimating the value of their effects on service performance. A greedy resource allocation algorithm adjusts resource prices to balance supply and demand, allocating resources to their most efficient use. A reconfigurable server switching infrastructure directs request traffic to the servers assigned to each service. Experimental results from a prototype confirm that the system adapts to offered load and resource availability, and can reduce server energy usage by 29 % or more for a typical Web workload. 1.
FeatureRich PartofSpeech Tagging with a Cyclic Dependency Network
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF HLTNAACL
, 2003
"... We present a new partofspeech tagger that demonstrates the following ideas: (i) explicit use of both preceding and following tag contexts via a dependency network representation, (ii) broad use of lexical features, including jointly conditioning on multiple consecutive words, (iii) effective ..."
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Cited by 660 (23 self)
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We present a new partofspeech tagger that demonstrates the following ideas: (i) explicit use of both preceding and following tag contexts via a dependency network representation, (ii) broad use of lexical features, including jointly conditioning on multiple consecutive words, (iii) effective use of priors in conditional loglinear models, and (iv) finegrained modeling of unknown word features. Using these ideas together, the resulting tagger gives a 97.24% accuracy on the Penn Treebank WSJ, an error reduction of 4.4% on the best previous single automatically learned tagging result.
KSVD: An Algorithm for Designing Overcomplete Dictionaries for Sparse Representation
, 2006
"... In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and inc ..."
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Cited by 930 (41 self)
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In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and include compression, regularization in inverse problems, feature extraction, and more. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of pursuit algorithms that decompose signals with respect to a given dictionary. Designing dictionaries to better fit the above model can be done by either selecting one from a prespecified set of linear transforms or adapting the dictionary to a set of training signals. Both of these techniques have been considered, but this topic is largely still open. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations. Given a set of training signals, we seek the dictionary that leads to the best representation for each member in this set, under strict sparsity constraints. We present a new method—the KSVD algorithm—generalizing the umeans clustering process. KSVD is an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data. The update of the dictionary columns is combined with an update of the sparse representations, thereby accelerating convergence. The KSVD algorithm is flexible and can work with any pursuit method (e.g., basis pursuit, FOCUSS, or matching pursuit). We analyze this algorithm and demonstrate its results both on synthetic tests and in applications on real image data.
Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs
"... We present a method of recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs taken with conventional imaging equipment. In our method, multiple photographs of the scene are taken with different amounts of exposure. Our algorithm uses these differently exposed photographs to recover the respon ..."
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Cited by 856 (15 self)
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We present a method of recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs taken with conventional imaging equipment. In our method, multiple photographs of the scene are taken with different amounts of exposure. Our algorithm uses these differently exposed photographs to recover the response function of the imaging process, up to factor of scale, using the assumption of reciprocity. With the known response function, the algorithm can fuse the multiple photographs into a single, high dynamic range radiance map whose pixel values are proportional to the true radiance values in the scene. We demonstrate our method on images acquired with both photochemical and digital imaging processes. We discuss how this work is applicable in many areas of computer graphics involving digitized photographs, including imagebased modeling, image compositing, and image processing. Lastly, we demonstrate a few applications of having high dynamic range radiance maps, such as synthesizing realistic motion blur and simulating the response of the human visual system.
Results 1  10
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