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Estimation of probabilities from sparse data for the language model component of a speech recognizer
 IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing
, 1987
"... AbstractThe description of a novel type of rngram language model is given. The model offers, via a nonlinear recursive procedure, a computation and space efficient solution to the problem of estimating probabilities from sparse data. This solution compares favorably to other proposed methods. Wh ..."
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Cited by 798 (2 self)
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AbstractThe description of a novel type of rngram language model is given. The model offers, via a nonlinear recursive procedure, a computation and space efficient solution to the problem of estimating probabilities from sparse data. This solution compares favorably to other proposed methods
Exploiting Generative Models in Discriminative Classifiers
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 11
, 1998
"... Generative probability models such as hidden Markov models provide a principled way of treating missing information and dealing with variable length sequences. On the other hand, discriminative methods such as support vector machines enable us to construct flexible decision boundaries and often resu ..."
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Cited by 549 (9 self)
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Generative probability models such as hidden Markov models provide a principled way of treating missing information and dealing with variable length sequences. On the other hand, discriminative methods such as support vector machines enable us to construct flexible decision boundaries and often
Nonparametric model for background subtraction
 in ECCV ’00
, 2000
"... Abstract. Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel nonparametric background model and a background subtraction approach. The model can ..."
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Cited by 554 (17 self)
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can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static but contains small motions such as tree branches and bushes. The model estimates the probability of observing pixel intensity values based on a sample of intensity values for each pixel. The model adapts
The Transferable Belief Model
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1994
"... We describe the transferable belief model, a model for representing quantified beliefs based on belief functions. Beliefs can be held at two levels: (1) a credal level where beliefs are entertained and quantified by belief functions, (2) a pignistic level where beliefs can be used to make decisions ..."
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Cited by 488 (16 self)
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We describe the transferable belief model, a model for representing quantified beliefs based on belief functions. Beliefs can be held at two levels: (1) a credal level where beliefs are entertained and quantified by belief functions, (2) a pignistic level where beliefs can be used to make decisions
Markov Random Field Models in Computer Vision
, 1994
"... . A variety of computer vision problems can be optimally posed as Bayesian labeling in which the solution of a problem is defined as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability estimate of the true labeling. The posterior probability is usually derived from a prior model and a likelihood model. The l ..."
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Cited by 517 (18 self)
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. A variety of computer vision problems can be optimally posed as Bayesian labeling in which the solution of a problem is defined as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability estimate of the true labeling. The posterior probability is usually derived from a prior model and a likelihood model
Maximum entropy markov models for information extraction and segmentation
, 2000
"... Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful probabilistic tool for modeling sequential data, and have been applied with success to many textrelated tasks, such as partofspeech tagging, text segmentation and information extraction. In these cases, the observations are usually modeled as multinomial ..."
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Cited by 561 (18 self)
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, capitalization, formatting, partofspeech), and defines the conditional probability of state sequences given observation sequences. It does this by using the maximum entropy framework to fit a set of exponential models that represent the probability of a state given an observation and the previous state. We
Graphical models, exponential families, and variational inference
, 2008
"... The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fiel ..."
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Cited by 817 (28 self)
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The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical
Modeling the Shape of the Scene: A Holistic Representation of the Spatial Envelope
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2001
"... In this paper, we propose a computational model of the recognition of real world scenes that bypasses the segmentation and the processing of individual objects or regions. The procedure is based on a very low dimensional representation of the scene, that we term the Spatial Envelope. We propose a se ..."
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Cited by 1309 (81 self)
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In this paper, we propose a computational model of the recognition of real world scenes that bypasses the segmentation and the processing of individual objects or regions. The procedure is based on a very low dimensional representation of the scene, that we term the Spatial Envelope. We propose a
A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1987
"... The sphere of modern financial economics encompases finance, micro investment theory and much of the economics of uncertainty. As is evident from its influence on other branches of economics including public finance, industrial organization and monetary theory, the boundaries of this sphere are both ..."
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Cited by 751 (2 self)
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are both permeable and flexible. The complex interactions of time and uncertainty guarantee intellectual challenge and intrinsic excitement to the study of financial economics. Indeed, the mathematics of the subject contain some of the most interesting applications of probability and optimization theory
MIXED MNL MODELS FOR DISCRETE RESPONSE
 JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMETRICS J. APPL. ECON. 15: 447470 (2000)
, 2000
"... This paper considers mixed, or random coefficients, multinomial logit (MMNL) models for discrete response, and establishes the following results. Under mild regularity conditions, any discrete choice model derived from random utility maximization has choice probabilities that can be approximated as ..."
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Cited by 489 (15 self)
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This paper considers mixed, or random coefficients, multinomial logit (MMNL) models for discrete response, and establishes the following results. Under mild regularity conditions, any discrete choice model derived from random utility maximization has choice probabilities that can be approximated
Results 1  10
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