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Transductive Inference for Text Classification using Support Vector Machines
, 1999
"... This paper introduces Transductive Support Vector Machines (TSVMs) for text classification. While regular Support Vector Machines (SVMs) try to induce a general decision function for a learning task, Transductive Support Vector Machines take into account a particular test set and try to minimiz ..."
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Cited by 887 (4 self)
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, especially for small training sets, cutting the number of labeled training examples down to a twentieth on some tasks. This work also proposes an algorithm for training TSVMs efficiently, handling 10,000 examples and more.
The StructureMapping Engine: Algorithm and Examples
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1989
"... This paper describes the StructureMapping Engine (SME), a program for studying analogical processing. SME has been built to explore Gentner's Structuremapping theory of analogy, and provides a "tool kit" for constructing matching algorithms consistent with this theory. Its flexibili ..."
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Cited by 512 (115 self)
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This paper describes the StructureMapping Engine (SME), a program for studying analogical processing. SME has been built to explore Gentner's Structuremapping theory of analogy, and provides a "tool kit" for constructing matching algorithms consistent with this theory. Its
Variational algorithms for approximate Bayesian inference
, 2003
"... The Bayesian framework for machine learning allows for the incorporation of prior knowledge in a coherent way, avoids overfitting problems, and provides a principled basis for selecting between alternative models. Unfortunately the computations required are usually intractable. This thesis presents ..."
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Cited by 430 (8 self)
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a unified variational Bayesian (VB) framework which approximates these computations in models with latent variables using a lower bound on the marginal likelihood. Chapter 1 presents background material on Bayesian inference, graphical models, and propagation algorithms. Chapter 2 forms
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can
Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known a ..."
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Cited by 3551 (15 self)
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We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known
A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets
 Neural Computation
, 2006
"... We show how to use “complementary priors ” to eliminate the explaining away effects that make inference difficult in denselyconnected belief nets that have many hidden layers. Using complementary priors, we derive a fast, greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a ..."
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Cited by 930 (51 self)
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We show how to use “complementary priors ” to eliminate the explaining away effects that make inference difficult in denselyconnected belief nets that have many hidden layers. Using complementary priors, we derive a fast, greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer
A learning algorithm for Boltzmann machines
 Cognitive Science
, 1985
"... The computotionol power of massively parallel networks of simple processing elements resides in the communication bandwidth provided by the hardware connections between elements. These connections con allow a significant fraction of the knowledge of the system to be applied to an instance of a probl ..."
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Cited by 586 (13 self)
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to a general learning rule for modifying the connection strengths so as to incorporate knowledge obout o task domain in on efficient way. We describe some simple examples in which the learning algorithm creates internal representations thot ore demonstrobly the most efficient way of using
Inferring Internet DenialofService Activity
 In Proceedings of the 10th Usenix Security Symposium
, 2001
"... In this paper, we seek to answer a simple question: "How prevalent are denialofservice attacks in the Internet today?". Our motivation is to understand quantitatively the nature of the current threat as well as to enable longerterm analyses of trends and recurring patterns of attacks. We ..."
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Cited by 451 (13 self)
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In this paper, we seek to answer a simple question: "How prevalent are denialofservice attacks in the Internet today?". Our motivation is to understand quantitatively the nature of the current threat as well as to enable longerterm analyses of trends and recurring patterns of attacks. We present a new technique, called "backscatter analysis", that provides an estimate of worldwide denialofservice activity. We use this approach on three weeklong datasets to assess the number, duration and focus of attacks, and to characterize their behavior. During this period, we observe more than 12,000 attacks against more than 5,000 distinct targets, ranging from well known ecommerce companies such as Amazon and Hotmail to small foreign ISPs and dialup connections. We believe that our work is the only publically available data quantifying denialofservice activity in the Internet.
Searching Distributed Collections With Inference Networks
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 18TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL ACM SIGIR CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
, 1995
"... The use of information retrieval systems in networked environments raises a new set of issues that have received little attention. These issues include ranking document collections for relevance to a query, selecting the best set of collections from a ranked list, and merging the document rankings t ..."
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Cited by 469 (36 self)
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that are returned from a set of collections. This paper describes methods of addressing each issue in the inference network model, discusses their implementation in the INQUERY system, and presents experimental results demonstrating their effectiveness.
Constructing Free Energy Approximations and Generalized Belief Propagation Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems t ..."
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Cited by 586 (13 self)
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Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems
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