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StrategyProofness and Arrow’s Conditions: Existence and Correspondence Theorems for Voting Procedures and Social Welfare Functions
 J. Econ. Theory
, 1975
"... Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I pro ..."
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Cited by 542 (0 self)
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Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I prove three theorems. First, every strategyproof voting procedure is dictatorial. Second, this paper’s strategyproofness condition for voting procedures corresponds to Arrow’s rationality, independence of irrelevant alternatives, nonnegative response, and citizens ’ sovereignty conditions for social welfare functions. Third, Arrow’s general possibility theorem is proven in a new manner. 1. INTR~OUOTI~N Almost every participant in the formal deliberations of a committee realizes that situations may occur where he can manipulate the outcome of the committee’s vote by misrepresenting his preferences. For example, a voter in choosing among a Democrat, a Republican, and a minor party candidate may decide to follow the “sophisticated strategy ” of voting for his second choice, the Democrat, instead of his “sincere strategy ” of voting for his first choice, the minor party candidate, because he thinks that a vote for the minor party candidate would be a wasted vote on a hopeless cause.l The fundamental question I ask in this paper is if a committee can eliminate use of sophisticated strategies among its members by constructing a voting procedure that is “strategyproof ” in the sense * I am indebted to JeanMarie Blin, Richard Day, Theodore Groves, Rubin Saposnik, Maria Schmundt, Hugo Sonnenschein, and an anonymous referee for their help in the development of this paper. 1 Farquharson [4] introduced the terms sophisticated strategy and sincere strategy.
Graphical models, exponential families, and variational inference
, 2008
"... The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fiel ..."
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Cited by 800 (26 self)
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The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fields, including bioinformatics, communication theory, statistical physics, combinatorial optimization, signal and image processing, information retrieval and statistical machine learning. Many problems that arise in specific instances — including the key problems of computing marginals and modes of probability distributions — are best studied in the general setting. Working with exponential family representations, and exploiting the conjugate duality between the cumulant function and the entropy for exponential families, we develop general variational representations of the problems of computing likelihoods, marginal probabilities and most probable configurations. We describe how a wide varietyof algorithms — among them sumproduct, cluster variational methods, expectationpropagation, mean field methods, maxproduct and linear programming relaxation, as well as conic programming relaxations — can all be understood in terms of exact or approximate forms of these variational representations. The variational approach provides a complementary alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo as a general source of approximation methods for inference in largescale statistical models.
Ownership Types for Flexible Alias Protection
 In ObjectOriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA
, 1998
"... Objectoriented programming languages allow interobject aliasing. Although necessary to construct linked data structures and networks of interacting objects, aliasing is problematic in that an aggregate object's state can change via an alias to one of its components, without the aggregate bein ..."
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Cited by 367 (40 self)
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Objectoriented programming languages allow interobject aliasing. Although necessary to construct linked data structures and networks of interacting objects, aliasing is problematic in that an aggregate object's state can change via an alias to one of its components, without the aggregate being aware of any aliasing. Ownership types form a static type system that indicates object ownership. This provides a flexible mechanism to limit the visibility of object references and restrict access paths to objects, thus controlling a system's dynamic topology. The type system is shown to be sound, and the specific aliasing properties that a system's object graph satisfies are formulated and proven invariant for welltyped programs. Keywords Alias protection, sharing, containment, ownership, representation exposure, programming language design 1
PROGRESS OF THE STVNS STUDY
"... Progress is given on the investigation of a low cost, scientifically attractive, and technologically feasible volumetric neutron source (VNS) based on the spherical torus (ST) concept. The STVNS has a major radius of 1.07 m, an aspect ratio of 1.4, and a plasma elongation 3. It can produce a neutro ..."
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Progress is given on the investigation of a low cost, scientifically attractive, and technologically feasible volumetric neutron source (VNS) based on the spherical torus (ST) concept. The STVNS has a major radius of 1.07 m, an aspect ratio of 1.4, and a plasma elongation 3. It can produce a
Quadraturebased methods for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear asset pricing models
 ECONOMETRICA
, 1991
"... ..."
Variable neighborhood search: Principles and applications
, 2001
"... Systematic change of neighborhood within a possibly randomized local search algorithm yields a simple and effective metaheuristic for combinatorial and global optimization, called variable neighborhood search (VNS). We present a basic scheme for this purpose, which can easily be implemented using an ..."
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Cited by 180 (16 self)
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any local search algorithm as a subroutine. Its effectiveness is illustrated by solving several classical combinatorial or global optimization problems. Moreover, several extensions are proposed for solving large problem instances: using VNS within the successive approximation method yields a twolevel
Scalability and Accuracy in a LargeScale Network Emulator
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5TH SYMPOSIUM ON OPERATING SYSTEMS DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION (OSDI
, 2002
"... This paper presents ModelNet, a scalable Internet emulation environment that enables researchers to deploy unmodified software prototypes in a configurable Internetlike environment and subject them to faults and varying network conditions. Edge nodes running userspecified OS and application softwa ..."
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Cited by 297 (47 self)
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This paper presents ModelNet, a scalable Internet emulation environment that enables researchers to deploy unmodified software prototypes in a configurable Internetlike environment and subject them to faults and varying network conditions. Edge nodes running userspecified OS and application software are configured to route their packets through a set of ModelNet core nodes, which cooperate to subject the traffic to the bandwidth, congestion constraints, latency, and loss profile of a target network topology.
This paper describes and evaluates the ModelNet architecture and its implementation, including novel techniques to balance emulation accuracy against scalability. The current ModelNet prototype is able to accurately subject thousands of instances of a distributed application to Internetlike conditions with gigabits of bisection bandwidth. Experiments with several largescale distributed services demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of the infrastructure.
Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 294 (16 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Automating the Generation of VNS Components with Grammatical Evolution
"... Abstract. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a family of problems whereby a fleet of vehicles must service the commodity demands of a set of geographically scattered customers from one or more depots, subject to a number of constraints. Early hyperheuristic research focussed on selecting and appl ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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and applying a lowlevel heuristic at a given stage of an optimisation process. Recent trends have led to a number of approaches being developed to automatically generate heuristics for a number of combinatorial optimisation problems. Previous work on the VRP has shown that the application of hyper
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