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611,976
Survey on Independent Component Analysis
 NEURAL COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
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Cited by 2241 (104 self)
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of the original data. Wellknown linear transformation methods include, for example, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. A recently developed linear transformation method is independent component analysis (ICA), in which the desired representation is the one that minimizes
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1999
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of paramet ..."
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Cited by 703 (5 self)
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation
Mixtures of Probabilistic Principal Component Analysers
, 1998
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular techniques for processing, compressing and visualising data, although its effectiveness is limited by its global linearity. While nonlinear variants of PCA have been proposed, an alternative paradigm is to capture data complexity by a com ..."
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Cited by 537 (6 self)
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular techniques for processing, compressing and visualising data, although its effectiveness is limited by its global linearity. While nonlinear variants of PCA have been proposed, an alternative paradigm is to capture data complexity by a
Nonlinear component analysis as a kernel eigenvalue problem

, 1996
"... We describe a new method for performing a nonlinear form of Principal Component Analysis. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, we can efficiently compute principal components in highdimensional feature spaces, related to input space by some nonlinear map; for instance the space of all ..."
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Cited by 1554 (85 self)
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We describe a new method for performing a nonlinear form of Principal Component Analysis. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, we can efficiently compute principal components in highdimensional feature spaces, related to input space by some nonlinear map; for instance the space of all
Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment
 Psychological Review
, 1983
"... Perhaps the simplest and the most basic qualitative law of probability is the conjunction rule: The probability of a conjunction, P(A&B), cannot exceed the probabilities of its constituents, P(A) and.P(B), because the extension (or the possibility set) of the conjunction is included in the exten ..."
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Cited by 427 (4 self)
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in the extension of its constituents. Judgments under uncertainty, however, are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule. A conjunction can be more representative than one of its constituents, and instances of a specific category can be easier to imagine or to retrieve than
Foundations for the Study of Software Architecture
 ACM SIGSOFT SOFTWARE ENGINEERING NOTES
, 1992
"... The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation for software architecture. We first develop an intuition for software architecture by appealing to several wellestablished architectural disciplines. On the basis of this intuition, we present a model of software architecture that consists of th ..."
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Cited by 784 (35 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation for software architecture. We first develop an intuition for software architecture by appealing to several wellestablished architectural disciplines. On the basis of this intuition, we present a model of software architecture that consists
Reinforcement Learning I: Introduction
, 1998
"... In which we try to give a basic intuitive sense of what reinforcement learning is and how it differs and relates to other fields, e.g., supervised learning and neural networks, genetic algorithms and artificial life, control theory. Intuitively, RL is trial and error (variation and selection, search ..."
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Cited by 5500 (120 self)
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In which we try to give a basic intuitive sense of what reinforcement learning is and how it differs and relates to other fields, e.g., supervised learning and neural networks, genetic algorithms and artificial life, control theory. Intuitively, RL is trial and error (variation and selection
Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars
, 1990
"... Treeadjoining grammars (TAG) have been proposed as a formalism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain of syntactic locality that TAGs provide should aid in localizing semantic dependencies as well, in turn serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We dem ..."
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Cited by 772 (43 self)
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Treeadjoining grammars (TAG) have been proposed as a formalism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain of syntactic locality that TAGs provide should aid in localizing semantic dependencies as well, in turn serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We
Modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory systems: A literature review
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
, 2002
"... In order to understand the functioning of organisms on the molecular level, we need to know which genes are expressed, when and where in the organism, and to which extent. The regulation of gene expression is achieved through genetic regulatory systems structured by networks of interactions between ..."
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Cited by 729 (15 self)
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DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules. As most genetic regulatory networks of interest involve many components connected through interlocking positive and negative feedback loops, an intuitive understanding of their dynamics is hard to obtain. As a consequence, formal methods and computer tools
BiNGO: a Cytoscape plugin to assess overrepresentation of gene ontology categories in biological networks
 Bioinformatics
, 2005
"... Summary: The Biological Networks Gene Ontology tool (BiNGO) is an opensource Java tool to determine which Gene Ontology (GO) terms are significantly overrepresented in a set of genes. BiNGO can be used either on a list of genes, pasted as text, or interactively on subgraphs of biological networks v ..."
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Cited by 532 (4 self)
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visualized in Cytoscape. BiNGO maps the predominant functional themes of the tested gene set on the GO hierarchy, and takes advantage of Cytoscape’s versatile visualization environment to produce an intuitive and customizable visual representation of the results.
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