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Toward an instance theory of automatization
 Psychological Review
, 1988
"... This article presents a theory in which automatization is construed as the acquisition of a domainspecific knowledge base, formed of separate representations, instances, of each exposure to the task. Processing is considered automatic if it relies on retrieval of stored instances, which will occur ..."
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Cited by 616 (37 self)
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This article presents a theory in which automatization is construed as the acquisition of a domainspecific knowledge base, formed of separate representations, instances, of each exposure to the task. Processing is considered automatic if it relies on retrieval of stored instances, which will occur
An instance theory of attention and memory
 Psychological Review
, 2002
"... An instance theory of attention and memory (ITAM) is presented that integrates formal theories of attention and memory phenomena by exploiting commonalities in their formal structure. The core idea in each theory is that performance depends on a choice process that can be modeled as a race between c ..."
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Cited by 72 (10 self)
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An instance theory of attention and memory (ITAM) is presented that integrates formal theories of attention and memory phenomena by exploiting commonalities in their formal structure. The core idea in each theory is that performance depends on a choice process that can be modeled as a race between
The Weibull distribution, the power law, and the instance theory of automaticity
 Psychological Review
, 1995
"... H. Colonius (1995) agreed with the fundamental tenets of the instance theory of automaticity. His article addressed the mathematical development of the theory, pointing out an error in one of two arguments that G. D. Logan (1988,1992) used to justify the choice of the Weibull as the distribution of ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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H. Colonius (1995) agreed with the fundamental tenets of the instance theory of automaticity. His article addressed the mathematical development of the theory, pointing out an error in one of two arguments that G. D. Logan (1988,1992) used to justify the choice of the Weibull as the distribution
Instance theory and universal grammar in second language research
 Second Language Research
, 1998
"... This article considers the possibility of applying instance theory to the study of language, second language in particular. Instance theory deemphasizes the role of abstract principles in knowledge and its acquisition and use, focusing instead on the storage and retrieval of specific experiences, o ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This article considers the possibility of applying instance theory to the study of language, second language in particular. Instance theory deemphasizes the role of abstract principles in knowledge and its acquisition and use, focusing instead on the storage and retrieval of specific experiences
AUTOMATICITY AND READING: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE INSTANCE THEORY OF AUTOMATIZATION
, 1997
"... This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan or sublicensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express ..."
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Cited by 37 (0 self)
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This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan or sublicensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
ChernSimons Gauge Theory as a String Theory
, 2003
"... Certain two dimensional topological field theories can be interpreted as string theory backgrounds in which the usual decoupling of ghosts and matter does not hold. Like ordinary string models, these can sometimes be given spacetime interpretations. For instance, threedimensional ChernSimons gaug ..."
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Cited by 544 (13 self)
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Certain two dimensional topological field theories can be interpreted as string theory backgrounds in which the usual decoupling of ghosts and matter does not hold. Like ordinary string models, these can sometimes be given spacetime interpretations. For instance, threedimensional Chern
Cognition and Categorization,
, 1978
"... Abstract Many concepts have stereotypes. This leaves open the question of whether concepts are stereotypes. It has been argued elsewhere that theories that identify concepts with their stereotypes or with stereotypical properties of their instances (e.g., ..."
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Cited by 1159 (0 self)
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Abstract Many concepts have stereotypes. This leaves open the question of whether concepts are stereotypes. It has been argued elsewhere that theories that identify concepts with their stereotypes or with stereotypical properties of their instances (e.g.,
The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems

, 1989
"... Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian/nonHamiltonian. In th ..."
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Cited by 1235 (39 self)
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Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian
Graphical models, exponential families, and variational inference
, 2008
"... The formalism of probabilistic graphical models provides a unifying framework for capturing complex dependencies among random variables, and building largescale multivariate statistical models. Graphical models have become a focus of research in many statistical, computational and mathematical fiel ..."
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Cited by 792 (27 self)
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fields, including bioinformatics, communication theory, statistical physics, combinatorial optimization, signal and image processing, information retrieval and statistical machine learning. Many problems that arise in specific instances — including the key problems of computing marginals and modes
Transfer of Cognitive Skill
, 1989
"... A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the s ..."
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Cited by 869 (21 self)
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. These processes include generalization, discrimination, and strengthening of productions. Comparisons are made to similar concepts from past learning theories. How these learning mechanisms apply to produce the power law speedup in processing time with practice is discussed. It requires at least 100 hours
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