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The click modular router
, 2001
"... Click is a new software architecture for building flexible and configurable routers. A Click router is assembled from packet processing modules called elements. Individual elements implement simple router functions like packet classification, queueing, scheduling, and interfacing with network devic ..."
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Cited by 1155 (28 self)
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language tools that optimize router configurations and ensure they satisfy simple invariants. Due to Click’s architecture and language, Click router configurations are modular and easy to extend. A standardscompliant Click IP router has sixteen elements on its forwarding path. We present extensions
Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible div ..."
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Cited by 500 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible
KodairaSpencer theory of gravity and exact results for quantum string amplitudes
 Commun. Math. Phys
, 1994
"... We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a particu ..."
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Cited by 545 (60 self)
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We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a particular realization of the N = 2 theories, the resulting string field theory is equivalent to a topological theory in six dimensions, the Kodaira– Spencer theory, which may be viewed as the closed string analog of the Chern–Simon theory. Using the mirror map this leads to computation of the ‘number ’ of holomorphic curves of higher genus curves in Calabi–Yau manifolds. It is shown that topological amplitudes can also be reinterpreted as computing corrections to superpotential terms appearing in the effective 4d theory resulting from compactification of standard 10d superstrings on the corresponding N = 2 theory. Relations with c = 1 strings are also pointed out.
The irreducibility of the space of curves of given genus
 Publ. Math. IHES
, 1969
"... Fix an algebraically closed field k. Let Mg be the moduli space of curves of genus g over k. The main result of this note is that Mg is irreducible for every k. Of course, whether or not M s is irreducible depends only on the characteristic of k. When the characteristic s o, we can assume that k ~ ..."
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Cited by 512 (2 self)
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Fix an algebraically closed field k. Let Mg be the moduli space of curves of genus g over k. The main result of this note is that Mg is irreducible for every k. Of course, whether or not M s is irreducible depends only on the characteristic of k. When the characteristic s o, we can assume that k ~ (1, and then the result is classical. A simple proof appears in EnriquesChisini [E, vol. 3, chap. 3], based on analyzing the totality of coverings of p1 of degree n, with a fixed number d of ordinary branch points. This method has been extended to char. p by William Fulton [F], using specializations from char. o to char. p provided that p> 2g qi. Unfortunately, attempts to extend this method to all p seem to get stuck on difficult questions of wild ramification. Nowadays, the Teichmtiller theory gives a thoroughly analytic but very profound insight into this irreducibility when kC. Our approach however is closest to Severi's incomplete proof ([Se], Anhang F; the error is on pp. 344345 and seems to be quite basic) and follows a suggestion of Grothendieck for using the result in char. o to deduce the result in char. p. The basis of both Severi's and Grothendieck's ideas is to construct families of curves X, some singular, with pa(X)=g, over nonsingular parameter spaces, which in some sense contain enough singular curves to link together any two components that Mg might have. The essential thing that makes this method work now is a recent " stable reduction theorem " for abelian varieties. This result was first proved independently in char. o by Grothendieck, using methods of etale cohomology (private correspondence with J. Tate), and by Mumford, applying the easy half of Theorem (2.5), to go from curves to abelian varieties (cf. [M2]). Grothendieck has recently strengthened his method so that it applies in all characteristics (SGA 7, ~968) 9 Mumford has also given a proof using theta functions in char. ~2. The result is this: Stable Reduction Theorem. Let R be a discrete valuation ring with quotient field K. Let A be an abelian variety over K. Then there exists a finite algebraic extension L of K such
A Framework for Defining Logics
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1993
"... The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of ariti ..."
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Cited by 807 (45 self)
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The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of arities. The treatment of rules and proofs focuses on his notion of a judgement. Logics are represented in LF via a new principle, the judgements as types principle, whereby each judgement is identified with the type of its proofs. This allows for a smooth treatment of discharge and variable occurrence conditions and leads to a uniform treatment of rules and proofs whereby rules are viewed as proofs of higherorder judgements and proof checking is reduced to type checking. The practical benefit of our treatment of formal systems is that logicindependent tools such as proof editors and proof checkers can be constructed.
Pfinder: Realtime tracking of the human body
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 1997
"... Pfinder is a realtime system for tracking people and interpreting their behavior. It runs at 10Hz on a standard SGI Indy computer, and has performed reliably on thousands of people in many different physical locations. The system uses a multiclass statistical model of color and shape to obtain a 2D ..."
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Cited by 1464 (48 self)
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Pfinder is a realtime system for tracking people and interpreting their behavior. It runs at 10Hz on a standard SGI Indy computer, and has performed reliably on thousands of people in many different physical locations. The system uses a multiclass statistical model of color and shape to obtain a 2D representation of head and hands in a wide range of viewing conditions. Pfinder has been successfully used in a wide range of applications including wireless interfaces, video databases, and lowbandwidth coding.
Simulating Physics with Computers
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1982
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 601 (1 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between computable and ...
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