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A Threshold of ln n for Approximating Set Cover
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1998
"... Given a collection F of subsets of S = f1; : : : ; ng, set cover is the problem of selecting as few as possible subsets from F such that their union covers S, and max kcover is the problem of selecting k subsets from F such that their union has maximum cardinality. Both these problems are NPhar ..."
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Cited by 776 (5 self)
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o(1)) ln n), and previous results of Lund and Yannakakis, that showed hardness of approximation within a ratio of (log 2 n)=2 ' 0:72 lnn. For max kcover we show an approximation threshold of (1 \Gamma 1=e) (up to low order terms), under the assumption that P != NP .
The use of the area under the ROC curve in the evaluation of machine learning algorithms
 PATTERN RECOGNITION
, 1997
"... In this paper we investigate the use of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as a performance measure for machine learning algorithms. As a case study we evaluate six machine learning algorithms (C4.5, Multiscale Classifier, Perceptron, Multilayer Perceptron, kNe ..."
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Cited by 685 (3 self)
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sensitivity in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests; a standard error that decreased as both AUC and the number of test samples increased; decision threshold independent; and it is invariant to a priori class probabilities. The paper concludes with the recommendation that AUC be used in preference to overall
Choices, values and frames.
 American Psychologist,
, 1984
"... Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The stu ..."
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Cited by 684 (9 self)
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Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology
Very simple classification rules perform well on most commonly used datasets
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machin ..."
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Cited by 547 (5 self)
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;quot;easy to learn" (Rendell & Seshu, 1990, p.256). Similarly, Shavlik et al. (1991) report that, with certain qualifications, "the accuracy of the perceptron is hardly distinguishable from the more complicated learning algorithms " (p.134). Further evidence is provided by studies
An empirical comparison of voting classification algorithms: Bagging, boosting, and variants.
 Machine Learning,
, 1999
"... Abstract. Methods for voting classification algorithms, such as Bagging and AdaBoost, have been shown to be very successful in improving the accuracy of certain classifiers for artificial and realworld datasets. We review these algorithms and describe a large empirical study comparing several vari ..."
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Cited by 707 (2 self)
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variants in conjunction with a decision tree inducer (three variants) and a NaiveBayes inducer. The purpose of the study is to improve our understanding of why and when these algorithms, which use perturbation, reweighting, and combination techniques, affect classification error. We provide a bias
Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance.
 IEEELACM Transactions on Networking,
, 1993
"... AbstractThis paper presents Random Early Detection (RED) gateways for congestion avoidance in packetswitched networks. The gateway detects incipient congestion by computing the average queue size. The gateway could notify connections of congestion either by dropping packets arriving at the gatewa ..."
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Cited by 2716 (31 self)
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at the gateway or by setting a bit in packet headers. When the average queue size exceeds a preset threshold, the gateway drops or marks each arriving packet with a certain probability, where the exact probability is a function of the average queue size. RED gateways keep the average queue size low while
Loopy belief propagation for approximate inference: An empirical study. In:
 Proceedings of Uncertainty in AI,
, 1999
"... Abstract Recently, researchers have demonstrated that "loopy belief propagation" the use of Pearl's polytree algorithm in a Bayesian network with loops can perform well in the context of errorcorrecting codes. The most dramatic instance of this is the near Shannonlimit performanc ..."
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Cited by 676 (15 self)
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. Introduction The task of calculating posterior marginals on nodes in an arbitrary Bayesian network is known to be NP hard In this paper we investigate the approximation performance of "loopy belief propagation". This refers to using the wellknown Pearl polytree algorithm [12] on a Bayesian network
Learning and Recognizing Human Dynamics in Video Sequences
, 1997
"... This paper describes a probabilistic decomposition of human dynamics at multiple abstractions, and shows how to propagate hypotheses across space, time, and abstraction levels. Recognition in this framework is the succession of very general low level grouping mechanisms to increased specific and lea ..."
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Cited by 356 (2 self)
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and learned model based grouping techniques at higher levels. Hard decision thresholds are delayed and resolved by higher level statistical models and temporal context. Lowlevel primitives are areas of coherent motion found by EM clustering, midlevel categories are simple movements represented by dynamical
Iterative hard thresholding for compressed sensing
 Appl. Comp. Harm. Anal
"... Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery probl ..."
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Cited by 329 (18 self)
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Compressed sensing is a technique to sample compressible signals below the Nyquist rate, whilst still allowing near optimal reconstruction of the signal. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the iterative hard thresholding algorithm when applied to the compressed sensing recovery
The Complexity of Decentralized Control of Markov Decision Processes
 Mathematics of Operations Research
, 2000
"... We consider decentralized control of Markov decision processes and give complexity bounds on the worstcase running time for algorithms that find optimal solutions. Generalizations of both the fullyobservable case and the partiallyobservable case that allow for decentralized control are described. ..."
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Cited by 411 (46 self)
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. For even two agents, the finitehorizon problems corresponding to both of these models are hard for nondeterministic exponential time. These complexity results illustrate a fundamental difference between centralized and decentralized control of Markov decision processes. In contrast to the problems
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