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generation Australians who generally speak a language other than English at
"... Melbournebased second generation australians who generally speak a language other than english at home ..."
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Melbournebased second generation australians who generally speak a language other than english at home
Knowledge and Common Knowledge in a Distributed Environment
 Journal of the ACM
, 1984
"... : Reasoning about knowledge seems to play a fundamental role in distributed systems. Indeed, such reasoning is a central part of the informal intuitive arguments used in the design of distributed protocols. Communication in a distributed system can be viewed as the act of transforming the system&apo ..."
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Cited by 578 (55 self)
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's state of knowledge. This paper presents a general framework for formalizing and reasoning about knowledge in distributed systems. We argue that states of knowledge of groups of processors are useful concepts for the design and analysis of distributed protocols. In particular, distributed knowledge
The SmallWorld Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective
 in Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... Long a matter of folklore, the “smallworld phenomenon ” — the principle that we are all linked by short chains of acquaintances — was inaugurated as an area of experimental study in the social sciences through the pioneering work of Stanley Milgram in the 1960’s. This work was among the first to m ..."
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Cited by 823 (5 self)
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to make the phenomenon quantitative, allowing people to speak of the “six degrees of separation ” between any two people in the United States. Since then, a number of network models have been proposed as frameworks in which to study the problem analytically. One of the most refined of these models
Calibrating noise to sensitivity in private data analysis
 In Proceedings of the 3rd Theory of Cryptography Conference
, 2006
"... Abstract. We continue a line of research initiated in [10, 11] on privacypreserving statistical databases. Consider a trusted server that holds a database of sensitive information. Given a query function f mapping databases to reals, the socalled true answer is the result of applying f to the datab ..."
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Cited by 649 (60 self)
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the ith row of the database and g maps database rows to [0, 1]. We extend the study to general functions f, proving that privacy can be preserved by calibrating the standard deviation of the noise according to the sensitivity of the function f. Roughly speaking, this is the amount that any single
Choices, values and frames.
 American Psychologist,
, 1984
"... Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The stu ..."
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Cited by 680 (9 self)
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Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology
Verification of Security Properties of Software Generally speaking,
"... I Software security is difficult to define I Many unclear notions (e.g., “privacy”) I Often many details (e.g., technical details) I Pencilandpaper verifications/proofs are difficult to check I Many abbreviations (e.g., “We see that... ”) I Often many cases (e.g., lengthy enumerations) There is a ..."
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I Software security is difficult to define I Many unclear notions (e.g., “privacy”) I Often many details (e.g., technical details) I Pencilandpaper verifications/proofs are difficult to check I Many abbreviations (e.g., “We see that... ”) I Often many cases (e.g., lengthy enumerations) There is a need for: 1. Mathematical definitions of what to verify 2. Computer means to do (or at least check) verifications Formal Verification I Appropriate in the case of critical systems I Formal verification consists of: 1. A mathematical model M of the system 2. A property ϕ expressed in a formal logic 3. Techniques to prove and check that M satisfies ϕ I There are mainly two approaches: I Proofassistants + Very expressive (infinite models handled by induction) − Requires human interaction
Proofs that Yield Nothing but Their Validity or All Languages in NP Have ZeroKnowledge Proof Systems
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1991
"... In this paper the generality and wide applicability of Zeroknowledge proofs, a notion introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff is demonstrated. These are probabilistic and interactive proofs that, for the members of a language, efficiently demonstrate membership in the language without convey ..."
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Cited by 426 (43 self)
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In this paper the generality and wide applicability of Zeroknowledge proofs, a notion introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff is demonstrated. These are probabilistic and interactive proofs that, for the members of a language, efficiently demonstrate membership in the language without
Generally speaking, students enrolled in EDS 5226 Introduction to Computers in
"... Education at Florida Institute of Technology will be entering their second careers. Due to the close proximity of Patrick Air Force Base and numerous defense contractors, you can expect a number of these individuals to be exmilitary. Most students will be moving into mathematics or science educatio ..."
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Education at Florida Institute of Technology will be entering their second careers. Due to the close proximity of Patrick Air Force Base and numerous defense contractors, you can expect a number of these individuals to be exmilitary. Most students will be moving into mathematics or science education. These students will typically bring rich work experiences, but may have a
Guide to Using the Index 1. Steps in the Calculation Generally speaking, there are four stages in constructing an index such as the CSGR
"... Globalisation Index, or the wellknown UNDP Human Development Index (HDI). First, a judgement is made about the “relevant variables ” that should enter the index. Second, quantitative i.e. numerical measures of these variables are found – here, data constraints are important. Third, these quantitat ..."
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Globalisation Index, or the wellknown UNDP Human Development Index (HDI). First, a judgement is made about the “relevant variables ” that should enter the index. Second, quantitative i.e. numerical measures of these variables are found – here, data constraints are important. Third, these quantitative measures are normalised, to deal with the problem that different variables are typically measured in different units and therefore may have very different average numerical values. Fourth, an average or weighted average of the normalised variables is calculated, which gives a numerical score for each country in each year. Fifth, the numerical scores are used to determine country rankings. In our case, this fivestep procedure is slightly more complex, as we first construct three separate subindices of globalisation (economic, social, and political) following steps 15.. The country rankings derived from these indices are reported separately on our website. We then calculate the simple unweighted average of these three subindices to give an overall globalisation index; the country rankings derived from this overall globalisation index are reported, along with the rankings from the separate economic, social, and political dimensions, giving four rankings in all. 2. The Variables in the Index The names and definitions of the variables in the index, plus their average (i.e. mean) values, are given below:
Speaking
"... The purpose of this project was to make _ a preliminary investigation of the processes of second language acquisition by children, adolescents and adults, and to develop a methodology appropriate to the study of second language learning. In the development of the methodology, applicable techniques f ..."
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from first language acquisition research were incorporated and new techniques appropriate specifically to second language acquisition were devised, The research examined the acquisition of English by six Spanishspeaking subjects over a tenmonth period. Two subjects were at each of three target ages
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