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Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11807 (17 self)
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situations, applications to grouped, censored or truncated data, finite mixture models, variance component estimation, hyperparameter estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares and factor analysis.
Auction Theory: A Guide to the Literature
 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS
, 1999
"... This paper provides an elementary, nontechnical, survey of auction theory, by introducing and describing some of the critical papers in the subject. (The most important of these are reproduced in a companion book, The Economic Theory of Auctions, Paul Klemperer (ed.), Edward Elgar (pub.), forthco ..."
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Cited by 528 (4 self)
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.), forthcoming.) We begin with the most fundamental concepts, and then introduce the basic analysis of optimal auctions, the revenue equivalence theorem, and marginal revenues. Subsequent sections address riskaversion, affiliation, asymmetries, entry, collusion, multiunit auctions, double auctions, royalties
Face Recognition: A Literature Survey
, 2000
"... ... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into ..."
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Cited by 1363 (21 self)
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... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights
SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
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Cited by 757 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a
Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research
 Psychological Methods
, 1999
"... Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of ..."
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Cited by 495 (4 self)
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Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each
Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors c ..."
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Cited by 538 (29 self)
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of the number of factors for configurations of the panel data encountered in practice. The idea that variations in a large number of economic variables can be modelled bya small number of reference variables is appealing and is used in manyeconomic analysis. In the finance literature, the arbitrage pricing
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null
Modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory systems: A literature review
 JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
, 2002
"... In order to understand the functioning of organisms on the molecular level, we need to know which genes are expressed, when and where in the organism, and to which extent. The regulation of gene expression is achieved through genetic regulatory systems structured by networks of interactions between ..."
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Cited by 729 (15 self)
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In order to understand the functioning of organisms on the molecular level, we need to know which genes are expressed, when and where in the organism, and to which extent. The regulation of gene expression is achieved through genetic regulatory systems structured by networks of interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules. As most genetic regulatory networks of interest involve many components connected through interlocking positive and negative feedback loops, an intuitive understanding of their dynamics is hard to obtain. As a consequence, formal methods and computer tools for the modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory networks will be indispensable. This paper reviews formalisms that have been employed in mathematical biology and bioinformatics to describe genetic regulatory systems, in particular directed graphs, Bayesian networks, Boolean networks and their generalizations, ordinary and partial differential equations, qualitative differential equations, stochastic equations, and rulebased formalisms. In addition, the paper discusses how these formalisms have been used in the simulation of the behavior of actual regulatory systems.
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1999
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of paramet ..."
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Cited by 703 (5 self)
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of parameters in a latent variable model closely related to factor analysis. We consider the properties of the associated likelihood function, giving an EM algorithm for estimating the principal subspace iteratively, and discuss, with illustrative examples, the advantages conveyed by this probabilistic approach
Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5350 (67 self)
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In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a
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