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On the Expected Total Number of Infections for Virus Spread on a Finite Network
, 1202
"... In this paper we consider a simple virus infection spread model on a finite population of n agents connected by some neighborhood structure. Given a graph G on n vertices, we begin with some fixed number of initial infected vertices. At each discrete time step, an infected vertex tries to infect its ..."
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its neighbors with probability β ∈ (0,1) independently of others and then it dies out. The process continues till all infected vertices die out. We focus on obtaining proper lower bounds on the expected number of ever infected vertices. We obtain a simple lower bound, using breadthfirst search
Expected stock returns and volatility
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1987
"... This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also evid ..."
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Cited by 674 (9 self)
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This paper examines the relation between stock returns and stock market volatility. We find evidence that the expected market risk premium (the expected return on a stock portfolio minus the Treasury bill yield) is positively related to the predictable volatility of stock returns. There is also
A HighThroughput Path Metric for MultiHop Wireless Routing
, 2003
"... This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The E ..."
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Cited by 1078 (5 self)
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This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination
Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns
, 2002
"... This study investigates whether marketwide liquidity is a state variable important for asset pricing. We find that expected stock returns are related crosssectionally to the sensitivities of returns to fluctuations in aggregate liquidity. Our monthly liquidity measure, an average of individualsto ..."
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Cited by 590 (4 self)
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This study investigates whether marketwide liquidity is a state variable important for asset pricing. We find that expected stock returns are related crosssectionally to the sensitivities of returns to fluctuations in aggregate liquidity. Our monthly liquidity measure, an average of individual
The crosssection of expected stock returns
 Journal of Finance
, 1992
"... Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR ' s Terms and Conditions of Use, available at ..."
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Cited by 1945 (23 self)
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Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR ' s Terms and Conditions of Use, available at
Expectations and the Neutrality of Money
 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC THEORY
, 1972
"... This paper provides a simple example of an economy in which equilibrium prices and quantities exhibit what may be the central feature of the modern business cycle: a systematic relation between the rate of change in nominal prices and the level of real output. The relationship, ..."
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Cited by 858 (5 self)
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This paper provides a simple example of an economy in which equilibrium prices and quantities exhibit what may be the central feature of the modern business cycle: a systematic relation between the rate of change in nominal prices and the level of real output. The relationship,
An algorithm for finding best matches in logarithmic expected time
 ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software
, 1977
"... An algorithm and data structure are presented for searching a file containing N records, each described by k real valued keys, for the m closest matches or nearest neighbors to a given query record. The computation required to organize the file is proportional to kNlogN. The expected number of recor ..."
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Cited by 759 (2 self)
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An algorithm and data structure are presented for searching a file containing N records, each described by k real valued keys, for the m closest matches or nearest neighbors to a given query record. The computation required to organize the file is proportional to kNlogN. The expected number
Segmentation of brain MR images through a hidden Markov random field model and the expectationmaximization algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL. IMAGING
, 2001
"... The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogrambased model, the FM has an intrinsic limi ..."
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Cited by 619 (14 self)
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The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogrambased model, the FM has an intrinsic limitation—no spatial information is taken into account. This causes the FM model to work only on welldefined images with low levels of noise; unfortunately, this is often not the the case due to artifacts such as partial volume effect and bias field distortion. Under these conditions, FM modelbased methods produce unreliable results. In this paper, we propose a novel hidden Markov random field (HMRF) model, which is a stochastic process generated by a MRF whose state sequence cannot be observed directly but which can be indirectly estimated through observations. Mathematically, it can be shown that the FM model is a degenerate version of the HMRF model. The advantage of the HMRF model derives from the way in which the spatial information is encoded through the mutual influences of neighboring sites. Although MRF modeling has been employed in MR image segmentation by other researchers, most reported methods are limited to using MRF as a general prior in an FM modelbased approach. To fit the HMRF model, an EM algorithm is used. We show that by incorporating both the HMRF model and the EM algorithm into a HMRFEM framework, an accurate and robust segmentation can be achieved. More importantly, the HMRFEM framework can easily be combined with other techniques. As an example, we show how the bias field correction algorithm of Guillemaud and Brady (1997) can be incorporated into this framework to achieve a threedimensional fully automated approach for brain MR image segmentation.
Expected Time Bounds for Selection
, 1975
"... A new selection algorithm is presented which is shown to be very efficient on the average, both theoretically and practically. The number of comparisons used to select the ith smallest of n numbers is n q min(i,ni) q o(n). A lower bound within 9 percent of the above formula is also derived. ..."
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Cited by 466 (4 self)
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A new selection algorithm is presented which is shown to be very efficient on the average, both theoretically and practically. The number of comparisons used to select the ith smallest of n numbers is n q min(i,ni) q o(n). A lower bound within 9 percent of the above formula is also derived.
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