Results 1  10
of
316,424
Contentbased image retrieval at the end of the early years
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The paper presents a review of 200 references in contentbased image retrieval. The paper starts with discussing the working conditions of contentbased retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap. Subsequent sections discuss computational steps for imag ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1594 (24 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The paper presents a review of 200 references in contentbased image retrieval. The paper starts with discussing the working conditions of contentbased retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap. Subsequent sections discuss computational steps for image retrieval systems. Step one of the review is image processing for retrieval sorted by color, texture, and local geometry. Features for retrieval are discussed next, sorted by: accumulative and global features, salient points, object and shape features, signs, and structural combinations thereof. Similarity of pictures and objects in pictures is reviewed for each of the feature types, in close connection to the types and means of feedback the user of the systems is capable of giving by interaction. We briefly discuss aspects of system engineering: databases, system architecture, and evaluation. In the concluding section, we present our view on: the driving force of the field, the heritage from computer vision, the influence on computer vision, the role of similarity and of interaction, the need for databases, the problem of evaluation, and the role of the semantic gap.
The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res
, 1961
"... ONLY limited success has been obtained in developing strains of human cells that can be cultivated for long periods of time in vitro and that still preserve the diploid chromosomal configuration [41, 47, 48, 58, 591. Indeed, heteroploidy may be a necessary corollary or even the cause of the alterat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 481 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
ONLY limited success has been obtained in developing strains of human cells that can be cultivated for long periods of time in vitro and that still preserve the diploid chromosomal configuration [41, 47, 48, 58, 591. Indeed, heteroploidy may be a necessary corollary or even the cause of the alteration of primary or diploid cells in vitro to the status of a cell line. Such changes in chromosome number appear to be independent of the type of primary tissue since they have been observed in cells derived from both normal and malignant tissue [4, 22, 23, 311. These cell lines, of which over two hundred have been reported in the literature, have serious limitations for many kinds of biological studies. Chief among these is the exclusion of their use for the production of human virus vaccines. This limitation is based on the supposition that such heteroploid cell lines, whether of normal or malignant origin, share many of the properties of malignant cells [29, 30, 371. This objection would be even more important if viruses played a role in human neoplasia. In general, if
The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode
 Journal of International Business Studies
, 1988
"... Abstract. Characteristics of national cultures have frequently been claimed to influence the selection of entry modes. This article investigates this claim by developing a theoretical argument for why culture should influence the choice of entry. Two hypotheses are derived which relate culture to en ..."
Abstract

Cited by 595 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
, wholly owned greenfield, and joint venture. Empirical support for the effect of national culture on entry choice is found. Foreign direct investment into the United States has grown dramatically since the early 1970s. Accompanying this increase has been a growth of academic work studying the phenomenon.1
USER ACCEPTANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: TOWARD A UNIFIED VIEW
, 2003
"... Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formu ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1665 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a sixmonth period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R 2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar
Algorithms for Quantum Computation: Discrete Logarithms and Factoring
, 1994
"... A computer is generally considered to be a universal computational device; i.e., it is believed able to simulate any physical computational device with a increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. It is not clear whether this is still true when quantum mechanics is taken into consi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1103 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A computer is generally considered to be a universal computational device; i.e., it is believed able to simulate any physical computational device with a increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. It is not clear whether this is still true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. Several researchers, starting with David Deutsch, have developed models for quantum mechanical computers and have investigated their computational properties. This paper gives Las Vegas algorithms for finding discrete logarithms and factoring integers on a quantum computer that take a number of steps which is polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. These two problems are generally considered hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. (We thus give the first examples of quantum cryptanalysis.) 1 Introduction Since the discovery of quantum mechanics, people have found the behavior of...
Comprehending Monads
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 1992
"... Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised t ..."
Abstract

Cited by 522 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Category theorists invented monads in the 1960's to concisely express certain aspects of universal algebra. Functional programmers invented list comprehensions in the 1970's to concisely express certain programs involving lists. This paper shows how list comprehensions may be generalised to an arbitrary monad, and how the resulting programming feature can concisely express in a pure functional language some programs that manipulate state, handle exceptions, parse text, or invoke continuations. A new solution to the old problem of destructive array update is also presented. No knowledge of category theory is assumed.
LanguageBased InformationFlow Security
 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS
, 2003
"... Current standard security practices do not provide substantial assurance that the endtoend behavior of a computing system satisfies important security policies such as confidentiality. An endtoend confidentiality policy might assert that secret input data cannot be inferred by an attacker throug ..."
Abstract

Cited by 821 (57 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Current standard security practices do not provide substantial assurance that the endtoend behavior of a computing system satisfies important security policies such as confidentiality. An endtoend confidentiality policy might assert that secret input data cannot be inferred by an attacker through the attacker's observations of system output; this policy regulates information flow.
Simulating Physics with Computers
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1982
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 601 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between computable and ...
For Most Large Underdetermined Systems of Linear Equations the Minimal ℓ1norm Solution is also the Sparsest Solution
 Comm. Pure Appl. Math
, 2004
"... We consider linear equations y = Φα where y is a given vector in R n, Φ is a given n by m matrix with n < m ≤ An, and we wish to solve for α ∈ R m. We suppose that the columns of Φ are normalized to unit ℓ 2 norm 1 and we place uniform measure on such Φ. We prove the existence of ρ = ρ(A) so that ..."
Abstract

Cited by 560 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We consider linear equations y = Φα where y is a given vector in R n, Φ is a given n by m matrix with n < m ≤ An, and we wish to solve for α ∈ R m. We suppose that the columns of Φ are normalized to unit ℓ 2 norm 1 and we place uniform measure on such Φ. We prove the existence of ρ = ρ(A) so that for large n, and for all Φ’s except a negligible fraction, the following property holds: For every y having a representation y = Φα0 by a coefficient vector α0 ∈ R m with fewer than ρ · n nonzeros, the solution α1 of the ℓ 1 minimization problem min �x�1 subject to Φα = y is unique and equal to α0. In contrast, heuristic attempts to sparsely solve such systems – greedy algorithms and thresholding – perform poorly in this challenging setting. The techniques include the use of random proportional embeddings and almostspherical sections in Banach space theory, and deviation bounds for the eigenvalues of random Wishart matrices.
A MetaAnalytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
"... A metaanalysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagementcontingent, completioncontingent, and performancecontingent rewards significantly undermined freechoice intrinsic motivation (d =0.40,0.36, and0.28, respectively), as did ..."
Abstract

Cited by 602 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A metaanalysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagementcontingent, completioncontingent, and performancecontingent rewards significantly undermined freechoice intrinsic motivation (d =0.40,0.36, and0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagementcontingent and completioncontingent rewards also significantly undermined selfreported interest (d =0.15, and —0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both freechoice behavior (d = 0.33) and selfreported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous metaanalyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones. By 1971, hundreds of studies within the operant tradition (Skinner, 1953) had established that extrinsic rewards can control behavior. When administered closely subsequent to a behavior, rewards were reliably found to increase the likelihood that the behavior would be emitted again, an effect that persisted as long as
Results 1  10
of
316,424