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20,082
The Infinite Hidden Markov Model
 Machine Learning
, 2002
"... We show that it is possible to extend hidden Markov models to have a countably infinite number of hidden states. By using the theory of Dirichlet processes we can implicitly integrate out the infinitely many transition parameters, leaving only three hyperparameters which can be learned from data. Th ..."
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Cited by 637 (41 self)
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. These three hyperparameters define a hierarchical Dirichlet process capable of capturing a rich set of transition dynamics. The three hyperparameters control the time scale of the dynamics, the sparsity of the underlying statetransition matrix, and the expected number of distinct hidden states in a finite
Coupled hidden Markov models for complex action recognition
, 1996
"... We present algorithms for coupling and training hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model interacting processes, and demonstrate their superiority to conventional HMMs in a vision task classifying twohanded actions. HMMs are perhaps the most successful framework in perceptual computing for modeling and ..."
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Cited by 501 (22 self)
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We present algorithms for coupling and training hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model interacting processes, and demonstrate their superiority to conventional HMMs in a vision task classifying twohanded actions. HMMs are perhaps the most successful framework in perceptual computing for modeling
Segmentation of brain MR images through a hidden Markov random field model and the expectationmaximization algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL. IMAGING
, 2001
"... The finite mixture (FM) model is the most commonly used model for statistical segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images because of its simple mathematical form and the piecewise constant nature of ideal brain MR images. However, being a histogrambased model, the FM has an intrinsic limi ..."
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Cited by 639 (15 self)
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based methods produce unreliable results. In this paper, we propose a novel hidden Markov random field (HMRF) model, which is a stochastic process generated by a MRF whose state sequence cannot be observed directly but which can be indirectly estimated through observations. Mathematically, it can be shown
Finding structure in time
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE
, 1990
"... Time underlies many interesting human behaviors. Thus, the question of how to represent time in connectionist models is very important. One approach is to represent time implicitly by its effects on processing rather than explicitly (as in a spatial representation). The current report develops a pro ..."
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Cited by 2071 (23 self)
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proposal along these lines first described by Jordan (1986) which involves the use of recurrent links in order to provide networks with a dynamic memory. In this approach, hidden unit patterns are fed back to themselves; the internal representations which develop thus reflect task demands in the context
Maximum entropy markov models for information extraction and segmentation
, 2000
"... Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful probabilistic tool for modeling sequential data, and have been applied with success to many textrelated tasks, such as partofspeech tagging, text segmentation and information extraction. In these cases, the observations are usually modeled as multinomial ..."
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Cited by 561 (18 self)
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Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful probabilistic tool for modeling sequential data, and have been applied with success to many textrelated tasks, such as partofspeech tagging, text segmentation and information extraction. In these cases, the observations are usually modeled
Conditional random fields: Probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data
, 2001
"... We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions ..."
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Cited by 3485 (85 self)
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We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions
Reinforcement learning: a survey
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1996
"... This paper surveys the field of reinforcement learning from a computerscience perspective. It is written to be accessible to researchers familiar with machine learning. Both the historical basis of the field and a broad selection of current work are summarized. Reinforcement learning is the problem ..."
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Cited by 1714 (25 self)
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of reinforcement learning, including trading off exploration and exploitation, establishing the foundations of the field via Markov decision theory, learning from delayed reinforcement, constructing empirical models to accelerate learning, making use of generalization and hierarchy, and coping with hidden state
Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration
 Brookings Papers on Economic Activity
, 1995
"... world economy roughly accorded with the idea of three distinct economic systems: a capitalist first world, a socialist second world, and a developing third world which aimed for a middle way between the first two. The third world was characterized not only by its low levels of per capita GDP, but al ..."
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Cited by 580 (13 self)
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, but also by a distinctive economic system that assigned the state sector the predominant role in industrialization, although not the monopoly on industrial ownership as in the socialist economies. The years between 1970 and 1995, and especially the last decade, have witnessed the most remarkable
ATTENTION, INTENTIONS, AND THE STRUCTURE OF DISCOURSE
, 1986
"... In this paper we explore a new theory of discourse structure that stresses the role of purpose and processing in discourse. In this theory, discourse structure is composed of three separate but interrelated components: the structure of the sequence of utterances (called the linguistic structure), a ..."
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Cited by 1259 (49 self)
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), a structure of purposes (called the intentional structure), and the state of focus of attention (called the attentional state). The linguistic structure consists of segments of the discourse into which the utterances naturally aggregate. The intentional structure captures the discourse
Pregel: A system for largescale graph processing
 IN SIGMOD
, 2010
"... Many practical computing problems concern large graphs. Standard examples include the Web graph and various social networks. The scale of these graphsâ€”in some cases billions of vertices, trillions of edgesâ€”poses challenges to their efficient processing. In this paper we present a computational model ..."
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Cited by 496 (0 self)
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model suitable for this task. Programs are expressed as a sequence of iterations, in each of which a vertex can receive messages sent in the previous iteration, send messages to other vertices, and modify its own state and that of its outgoing edges or mutate graph topology. This vertexcentric approach
Results 1  10
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