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"... Transcranial ultrasound improves mood in human subjects Lowintensity ultrasound promotes neurite outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons8 Ultrasound can accelerate neuronal development Transcranial ultrasound (‘TUS’) – an optimal noninvasive brainmachine interface via microtubules? ..."
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Transcranial ultrasound improves mood in human subjects Lowintensity ultrasound promotes neurite outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons8 Ultrasound can accelerate neuronal development Transcranial ultrasound (‘TUS’) – an optimal noninvasive brainmachine interface via microtubules?
Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 683 (1 self)
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problems occur at a critical value of such a parameter. This critical value separates two regions of characteristically different properties. For example, for Kcolorability, the critical value separates overconstrained from underconstrained random graphs, and it marks the value at which the probability
Metaphors We Live By
, 1980
"... 1. Make a list of some of the metaphors discussed by Lakoff and Johnson. Try inserting new words that convey a different meaning. For example, consider the expression, “I’d like to share some time with you ” rather than “spend some time with you.” 2. Make a list of “language asymmetries ” (see Part ..."
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Cited by 3387 (7 self)
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II, p. XX, and Reading 12 for definitions) and consider what underlying cultural values these asymmetries indicate. 3. Consider the use of the masculine he or man to refer to all people. Some people say that this “generic use ” is perfectly acceptable because the terms “imply ” women as well as men
Exploration, normalization, and summaries of high density oligonucleotide array probe level data.
 Biostatistics,
, 2003
"... SUMMARY In this paper we report exploratory analyses of highdensity oligonucleotide array data from the Affymetrix GeneChip R system with the objective of improving upon currently used measures of gene expression. Our analyses make use of three data sets: a small experimental study consisting of f ..."
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Cited by 854 (33 self)
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familiar features of the perfect match and mismatch probe (P M and M M) values of these data, and examine the variancemean relationship with probelevel data from probes believed to be defective, and so delivering noise only. We explain why we need to normalize the arrays to one another using probe level
Beyond pleasure and pain
 American Psychologist
, 1997
"... People approach pleasure and avoid pain. To discover the true nature of approachavoidance motivation, psychologists need to move beyond this hedonic principle to the principles that underlie the different ways that it operates. One such principle is regulatory focus, which distinguishes selfregula ..."
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Cited by 527 (21 self)
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People approach pleasure and avoid pain. To discover the true nature of approachavoidance motivation, psychologists need to move beyond this hedonic principle to the principles that underlie the different ways that it operates. One such principle is regulatory focus, which distinguishes self
Spacetime block codes from orthogonal designs
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1999
"... Abstract — We introduce space–time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code and the encoded data is split into � streams which are simultaneously transmitted using � transmit antennas. ..."
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Cited by 1524 (42 self)
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. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the � transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximumlikelihood decoding is achieved in a simple way through decoupling of the signals transmitted from different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure
A unified statistical approach for determining significant signals in images of cerebral activation
, 1996
"... Abstract: We present a unified statistical theory for assessing the significance of apparent signal observed in noisy difference images. The results are usable in a wide range of applications, including astrophysics, but are discussed with particular reference to images which represent changes in ce ..."
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Cited by 400 (39 self)
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in cerebral blood flow elicited by a specific cognitive or sensorimotor task. Our main result is an estimate of the pvalue for local maxima of Gaussian, t, χ 2 and F fields over search regions of any shape or size in any number of dimensions. This unifies the pvalues for large search areas in 2D (Friston
Policy gradient methods for reinforcement learning with function approximation.
 In NIPS,
, 1999
"... Abstract Function approximation is essential to reinforcement learning, but the standard approach of approximating a value function and determining a policy from it has so far proven theoretically intractable. In this paper we explore an alternative approach in which the policy is explicitly repres ..."
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Cited by 439 (20 self)
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. Marbach and Tsitsiklis (1998) describe a related but different expression for the gradient in terms of the statevalue function, citing Jaakkola, ∂θ : the effect of policy changes on the distribution of states does not appear. This is convenient for approximating the gradient by sampling. For example
A filtering algorithm for constraints of difference in CSPs
 Proceedings of AAAI’94, the 12th (US) National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1994
"... Abstract Many reallife Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) involve some constraints similar to the alldifferent constraints. These constraints are called constraints of difference. They are defined on a subset of variables by a set of tuples for which the values occuring in the same tuple are ..."
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Cited by 378 (6 self)
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Abstract Many reallife Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) involve some constraints similar to the alldifferent constraints. These constraints are called constraints of difference. They are defined on a subset of variables by a set of tuples for which the values occuring in the same tuple
The Determinants of Credit Spread Changes.
 Journal of Finance
, 2001
"... ABSTRACT Using dealer's quotes and transactions prices on straight industrial bonds, we investigate the determinants of credit spread changes. Variables that should in theory determine credit spread changes have rather limited explanatory power. Further, the residuals from this regression are ..."
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Cited by 422 (2 self)
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demonstrate that equity and debt can be valued using contingentclaims analysis. Introduced by Merton (1974) and further investigated by, among others, Black and Cox (1976), Leland (1994), Longstaff and Schwartz (1995), Bryis and de Varenne (1997), and CollinDufresne and Goldstein Mathematically
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