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SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
Abstract

Cited by 757 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Systematic design of program analysis frameworks
 In 6th POPL
, 1979
"... Semantic analysis of programs is essential in optimizing compilers and program verification systems. It encompasses data flow analysis, data type determination, generation of approximate invariant ..."
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Cited by 771 (52 self)
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Semantic analysis of programs is essential in optimizing compilers and program verification systems. It encompasses data flow analysis, data type determination, generation of approximate invariant
Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible div ..."
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Cited by 500 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a new centrality measure that identifies those vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of realworld complex networks.
The Skill Content of Recent Technological Change: An Empirical Exploration
, 2000
"... Recent empirical and case study evidence documents a strong association between the adoption of computers and increased use of college educated or nonproduction workers. With few exceptions, the conceptual link explaining how computer technology complements skilled labor or substitutes for unskille ..."
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Cited by 607 (29 self)
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Recent empirical and case study evidence documents a strong association between the adoption of computers and increased use of college educated or nonproduction workers. With few exceptions, the conceptual link explaining how computer technology complements skilled labor or substitutes for unskilled labor is less well developed. This paper applies an understanding of what computers do – the execution of procedural or rulesbased logic – to develop and test a simple model of how the widespread adoption of computers in the workplace might alter workplace skill demands. Two essential contentions of our framework are that computer capital (1) substitutes for a limited and welldefined set of human activities, those involving routine (repetitive) cognitive and manual tasks; and (2) complements a second set of activities, those involving nonroutine problem solving and interactive tasks. Under the assumption that routine and nonroutine tasks are imperfect substitutes, the task framework implies measurable changes in the task content of employment. We examine these changes using representative samples of workers from 1960 to 1998 where individual characteristics are augmented with Dictionary of Occupational Title variables describing their occupations ’ requirements for routine and nonroutine cognitive and manual skills. We find that computerization is associated with declining relative industry
The 2005 pascal visual object classes challenge
, 2006
"... Abstract. The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge ran from February to March 2005. The goal of the challenge was to recognize objects from a number of visual object classes in realistic scenes (i.e. not presegmented objects). Four object classes were selected: motorbikes, bicycles, cars and peop ..."
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Cited by 633 (24 self)
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Abstract. The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge ran from February to March 2005. The goal of the challenge was to recognize objects from a number of visual object classes in realistic scenes (i.e. not presegmented objects). Four object classes were selected: motorbikes, bicycles, cars and people. Twelve teams entered the challenge. In this chapter we provide details of the datasets, algorithms used by the teams, evaluation criteria, and results achieved. 1
Sparse Bayesian Learning and the Relevance Vector Machine
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vec ..."
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Cited by 958 (5 self)
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This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vector machine' (RVM), a model of identical functional form to the popular and stateoftheart `support vector machine' (SVM). We demonstrate that by exploiting a probabilistic Bayesian learning framework, we can derive accurate prediction models which typically utilise dramatically fewer basis functions than a comparable SVM while oering a number of additional advantages. These include the benets of probabilistic predictions, automatic estimation of `nuisance' parameters, and the facility to utilise arbitrary basis functions (e.g. non`Mercer' kernels).
CONDENSATION  conditional density propagation for visual tracking
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1998
"... The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman filtering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. The Condensation algorithm uses "factored sampling", previously appli ..."
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Cited by 1499 (12 self)
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The problem of tracking curves in dense visual clutter is challenging. Kalman filtering is inadequate because it is based on Gaussian densities which, being unimodal, cannot represent simultaneous alternative hypotheses. The Condensation algorithm uses "factored sampling", previously applied to the interpretation of static images, in which the probability distribution of possible interpretations is represented by a randomly generated set. Condensation uses learned dynamical models, together with visual observations, to propagate the random set over time. The result is highly robust tracking of agile motion. Notwithstanding the use of stochastic methods, the algorithm runs in near realtime. Contents 1 Tracking curves in clutter 2 2 Discretetime propagation of state density 3 3 Factored sampling 6 4 The Condensation algorithm 8 5 Stochastic dynamical models for curve motion 10 6 Observation model 13 7 Applying the Condensation algorithm to videostreams 17 8 Conclusions 26 A Nonline...
Estimating the Support of a HighDimensional Distribution
, 1999
"... Suppose you are given some dataset drawn from an underlying probability distribution P and you want to estimate a "simple" subset S of input space such that the probability that a test point drawn from P lies outside of S is bounded by some a priori specified between 0 and 1. We propo ..."
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Cited by 766 (29 self)
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Suppose you are given some dataset drawn from an underlying probability distribution P and you want to estimate a "simple" subset S of input space such that the probability that a test point drawn from P lies outside of S is bounded by some a priori specified between 0 and 1. We propose a method to approach this problem by trying to estimate a function f which is positive on S and negative on the complement. The functional form of f is given by a kernel expansion in terms of a potentially small subset of the training data; it is regularized by controlling the length of the weight vector in an associated feature space. The expansion coefficients are found by solving a quadratic programming problem, which we do by carrying out sequential optimization over pairs of input patterns. We also provide a preliminary theoretical analysis of the statistical performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is a natural extension of the support vector algorithm to the case of unlabelled d...
The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis
 Cognit Psychol
, 2000
"... This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe’ ’ or ‘ ..."
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Cited by 626 (9 self)
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This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe’ ’ or ‘‘executive’ ’ tasks. One hundred thirtyseven college students performed a set of relatively simple experimental tasks that are considered to predominantly tap each target executive function as well as a set of frequently used executive tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Hanoi (TOH), random number generation (RNG), operation span, and dual tasking. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three target executive functions are moderately correlated with one another, but are clearly separable. Moreover, structural equation modeling suggested that the three functions
Locally weighted learning
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REVIEW
, 1997
"... This paper surveys locally weighted learning, a form of lazy learning and memorybased learning, and focuses on locally weighted linear regression. The survey discusses distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures, regularization of the estimates and bias, ass ..."
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Cited by 594 (53 self)
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This paper surveys locally weighted learning, a form of lazy learning and memorybased learning, and focuses on locally weighted linear regression. The survey discusses distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures, regularization of the estimates and bias, assessing predictions, handling noisy data and outliers, improving the quality of predictions by tuning t parameters, interference between old and new data, implementing locally weighted learning e ciently, and applications of locally weighted learning. A companion paper surveys how locally weighted learning can be used in robot learning and control.
Results 11  20
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