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Training Products of Experts by Minimizing Contrastive Divergence
, 2002
"... It is possible to combine multiple latentvariable models of the same data by multiplying their probability distributions together and then renormalizing. This way of combining individual “expert ” models makes it hard to generate samples from the combined model but easy to infer the values of the l ..."
Abstract

Cited by 850 (75 self)
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It is possible to combine multiple latentvariable models of the same data by multiplying their probability distributions together and then renormalizing. This way of combining individual “expert ” models makes it hard to generate samples from the combined model but easy to infer the values
Choices, values and frames.
 American Psychologist,
, 1984
"... Making decisions is like speaking prosepeople do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The stu ..."
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Cited by 684 (9 self)
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. The study of decisions addresses both normative and descriptive questions. The normative analysis is concerned with the nature of rationality and the logic of decision making. The descriptive analysis, in contrast, is concerned with people's beliefs and preferences as they are, not as they should be
Bilateral Filtering for Gray and Color Images
, 1998
"... tomasi @ cs.stanford.edu Bilateral filtering smooths images while preserving edges, by means of a nonlinear combination of nearby image values. The method is noniterative, local, and simple. It combines gray levels or colors based on both their geometric closeness and their photometric similariv, a ..."
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Cited by 1156 (2 self)
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, and prefers near values to distant values in both domain and range. In contrast with filters that operate on the three bands of a color image separately, a bilateral filter can enforce the perceptual metric underlying the CIELab color space, and smooth colors and preserve edges in a way that is tuned
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing
, 1999
"... Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized ..."
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Cited by 1225 (10 self)
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model is able to deal with domainspecific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In contrast to standard Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) by Singular Value Decomposition, the probabilistic variant has a solid statistical foundation and defines a proper generative data model. Retrieval experiments
Determinants of Economic Growth: A CrossCountry Empirical Study
, 1996
"... Empirical findings for a panel of around 100 countries from 1960 to 1990 strongly support the general notion of conditional convergence. For a given starting level of real per capita GDP, the growth rate is enhanced by higher initial schooling and life expectancy, lower fertility, lower government c ..."
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Cited by 892 (12 self)
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consumption, better maintenance of the rule of law, lower inflation, and improvements in the terms of trade. For given values of these and other variables, growth is negatively related to the initial level of real per capita GDP. Political freedom has only a weak effect on growth but there is some indication
New evidence and perspectives on mergers
 Journal of Economic Perspectives
, 2001
"... As in previous decades, merger activity clusters by industry during the 1990s. One particular kind of industry shock, deregulation, becomes a dominant factor, accounting for nearly half of the merger activity since the late 1980s. In contrast to the 1980s, mergers in the 1990s are mostly stock swaps ..."
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Cited by 497 (3 self)
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As in previous decades, merger activity clusters by industry during the 1990s. One particular kind of industry shock, deregulation, becomes a dominant factor, accounting for nearly half of the merger activity since the late 1980s. In contrast to the 1980s, mergers in the 1990s are mostly stock
Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation
 Psychological Review
, 1991
"... People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have ..."
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Cited by 1832 (35 self)
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have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals
Unsupervised Learning by Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis
 Machine Learning
, 2001
"... Abstract. This paper presents a novel statistical method for factor analysis of binary and count data which is closely related to a technique known as Latent Semantic Analysis. In contrast to the latter method which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of cooccurren ..."
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Cited by 618 (4 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a novel statistical method for factor analysis of binary and count data which is closely related to a technique known as Latent Semantic Analysis. In contrast to the latter method which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co
The ratedistortion function for source coding with side information at the decoder
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1976
"... AbstractLet {(X,, Y,J}r = 1 be a sequence of independent drawings of a pair of dependent random variables X, Y. Let us say that X takes values in the finite set 6. It is desired to encode the sequence {X,} in blocks of length n into a binary stream*of rate R, which can in turn be decoded as a seque ..."
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Cited by 1060 (1 self)
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AbstractLet {(X,, Y,J}r = 1 be a sequence of independent drawings of a pair of dependent random variables X, Y. Let us say that X takes values in the finite set 6. It is desired to encode the sequence {X,} in blocks of length n into a binary stream*of rate R, which can in turn be decoded as a
Image Enhancement by Comparing Contrast value in Fuzzy Plane
"... Abstract — In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for contrast enhancement of greyscale image using the fuzzy logic based techniques such as contrast intensification (INT) operator. In the proposed algorithm, a measure of contrast of an image is introduced which is maximized to obtain a suitabl ..."
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Abstract — In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for contrast enhancement of greyscale image using the fuzzy logic based techniques such as contrast intensification (INT) operator. In the proposed algorithm, a measure of contrast of an image is introduced which is maximized to obtain a
Results 1  10
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1,624,994