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A Theory of Diagnosis from First Principles
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1987
"... Suppose one is given a description of a system, together with an observation of the system's behaviour which conflicts with the way the system is meant to behave. The diagnostic problem is to determine those components of the system which, when assumed to be functioning abnormally, will explain ..."
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Cited by 1117 (5 self)
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, will explain the discrepancy between the observed and correct system behaviour. We propose a general theory for this problem. The theory requires only that the system be described in a suitable logic. Moreover, there are many such suitable logics, e.g. firstorder, temporal, dynamic, etc. As a result
Bayesian Interpolation
 Neural Computation
, 1991
"... Although Bayesian analysis has been in use since Laplace, the Bayesian method of modelcomparison has only recently been developed in depth. In this paper, the Bayesian approach to regularisation and modelcomparison is demonstrated by studying the inference problem of interpolating noisy data. T ..."
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Cited by 721 (17 self)
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. The concepts and methods described are quite general and can be applied to many other problems. Regularising constants are set by examining their posterior probability distribution. Alternative regularisers (priors) and alternative basis sets are objectively compared by evaluating the evidence for them
House Prices, Borrowing Constraints, and Monetary Policy in the Business Cycle
, 2002
"... I develop a general equilibrium model with sticky prices, credit constraints, nominal loans and asset prices. Changes in asset prices modify agents ’ borrowing capacity through collateral value; changes in nominal prices affect real repayments through debt deflation. Monetary policy shocks move asse ..."
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Cited by 496 (10 self)
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asset and nominal prices in the same direction, and are amplified and propagated over time. The “financial accelerator ” is not constant across shocks: nominal debt stabilises supply shocks, making the economy less volatile when the central bank controls the interest rate. I discuss the role of equity
Limited Discrepancy Search
 In Proceedings IJCAI’95
, 1995
"... Many problems of practical interest can be solved using tree search methods because carefully tuned successor ordering heuristics guide the search toward regions of the space that are likely to contain solutions. For some problems, the heuristics often lead directly to a solution— but not always. Li ..."
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Cited by 306 (5 self)
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. Limited discrepancy search addresses the problem of what to do when the heuristics fail. Our intuition is that a failing heuristic might well have succeeded if it were not for a small number of "wrong turns " along the way. For a binary tree of height d, there are only d ways the heuristic could
Beyond pleasure and pain
 American Psychologist
, 1997
"... People approach pleasure and avoid pain. To discover the true nature of approachavoidance motivation, psychologists need to move beyond this hedonic principle to the principles that underlie the different ways that it operates. One such principle is regulatory focus, which distinguishes selfregula ..."
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Cited by 500 (18 self)
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People approach pleasure and avoid pain. To discover the true nature of approachavoidance motivation, psychologists need to move beyond this hedonic principle to the principles that underlie the different ways that it operates. One such principle is regulatory focus, which distinguishes selfregulation with a promotion focus (accomplishments and aspirations)from selfregulation with a prevention focus (safety and responsibilities). This principle is used to reconsider the fundamental nature of approachavoidance, expectancyvalue relations, and emotional and evaluative sensitivities. Both types of regulatory focus are applied to phenonomena that have been treated in terms of either promotion (e.g., wellbeing) or prevention (e.g., cognitive dissonance). Then, regulatory focus is distinguished from regulatory anticipation and regulatory reference, 2 other principles underlying the different ways that people approach pleasure and avoid pain. It seems that our entire psychical activity is bent upon procuring pleasure and avoiding pain, that it is automatically regulated by the PLEASUREPRINCIPLE. (Freud, 1920/1952, p. 365) People are motivated to approach pleasure and avoid pain. From the ancient Greeks, through 17th and 18thcentury British philosophers, to 20thcentury psychologists, this hedonic or pleasure principle has dominated scholars ' understanding of people's motivation. It is the basic motivational assumption of theories across all areas of psychology, including theories of emotion in psychobiology (e.g., Gray, 1982), conditioning in animal learning
Detection and Tracking of Point Features
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1991
"... The factorization method described in this series of reports requires an algorithm to track the motion of features in an image stream. Given the small interframe displacement made possible by the factorization approach, the best tracking method turns out to be the one proposed by Lucas and Kanade i ..."
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Cited by 622 (2 self)
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The factorization method described in this series of reports requires an algorithm to track the motion of features in an image stream. Given the small interframe displacement made possible by the factorization approach, the best tracking method turns out to be the one proposed by Lucas and Kanade in 1981. The method defines the measure of match between fixedsize feature windows in the past and current frame as the sum of squared intensity differences over the windows. The displacement is then defined as the one that minimizes this sum. For small motions, a linearization of the image intensities leads to a NewtonRaphson style minimization. In this report, after rederiving the method in a physically intuitive way, we answer the crucial question of how to choose the feature windows that are best suited for tracking. Our selection criterion is based directly on the definition of the tracking algorithm, and expresses how well a feature can be tracked. As a result, the criterion is optima...
Numerical integration of the Cartesian equations of motion of a system with constraints: molecular dynamics of nalkanes
 J. Comput. Phys
, 1977
"... A numerical algorithm integrating the 3N Cartesian equations of motion of a system of N points subject to holonomic constraints is formulated. The relations of constraint remain perfectly fulfilled at each step of the trajectory despite the approximate character of numerical integration. The method ..."
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Cited by 682 (6 self)
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A numerical algorithm integrating the 3N Cartesian equations of motion of a system of N points subject to holonomic constraints is formulated. The relations of constraint remain perfectly fulfilled at each step of the trajectory despite the approximate character of numerical integration. The method is applied to a molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid of 64 nbutane molecules and compared to a simulation using generalized coordinates. The method should be useful for molecular dynamics calculations on large molecules with internal degrees of freedom. 1. INTR~D~JCTI~N The method of molecular dynamics (MD), which has been widely used in the past for studying simple liquids and solids, has more recently been applied to molecular systems with internal degrees of freedom such as N, [l], H,O [2] and even C,H,, [3]. In applying the MD method three problems arise: (a) the choice of a suitable mechanical model, (b) the derivation of the equations of motion of the system and (c) the choice of an efficient algorithm for the numerical integration of these equations. In polyatomic molecules, the fast internal vibrations are usually decoupled from
Inverse Acoustic and Electromagnetic Scattering Theory, Second Edition
, 1998
"... Abstract. This paper is a survey of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic acoustic and electromagnetic waves at fixed frequency. We begin by a discussion of “weak scattering ” and Newtontype methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves, including a brief discussi ..."
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Cited by 1072 (45 self)
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Abstract. This paper is a survey of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic acoustic and electromagnetic waves at fixed frequency. We begin by a discussion of “weak scattering ” and Newtontype methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves, including a brief discussion of Tikhonov’s method for the numerical solution of illposed problems. We then proceed to prove a uniqueness theorem for the inverse obstacle problems for acoustic waves and the linear sampling method for reconstructing the shape of a scattering obstacle from far field data. Included in our discussion is a description of Kirsch’s factorization method for solving this problem. We then turn our attention to uniqueness and reconstruction algorithms for determining the support of an inhomogeneous, anisotropic media from acoustic far field data. Our survey is concluded by a brief discussion of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic electromagnetic waves. 1.
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