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3,384
A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli
 Psychological Review
, 1980
"... Several formal models of excitatory classical conditioning are reviewed. It is suggested that a central problem for all of them is the explanation of cases in which learning does not occur in spite of the fact that the conditioned stimulus is a signal for the reinforcer. We propose a new model that ..."
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Cited by 290 (11 self)
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that deals with this problem by specifying that certain procedures cause a conditioned stimulus (CS) to lose effectiveness; in particular, we argue that a CS will lose associability when its consequences are accurately predicted. In contrast to other current models, the effectiveness of the reinforcer
The probability of duplicate gene preservation by subfunctionalization.
 Genetics
, 2000
"... ABSTRACT It has often been argued that geneduplication events are most commonly followed by a mutational event that silences one member of the pair, while on rare occasions both members of the pair are preserved as one acquires a mutation with a beneficial function and the other retains the origin ..."
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Cited by 261 (2 self)
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ABSTRACT It has often been argued that geneduplication events are most commonly followed by a mutational event that silences one member of the pair, while on rare occasions both members of the pair are preserved as one acquires a mutation with a beneficial function and the other retains
When trees collide: An approximation algorithm for the generalized Steiner problem on networks
, 1994
"... We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using the a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 249 (38 self)
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We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using
Practical privacy: the sulq framework
 In PODS ’05: Proceedings of the twentyfourth ACM SIGMODSIGACTSIGART symposium on Principles of database systems
, 2005
"... We consider a statistical database in which a trusted administrator introduces noise to the query responses with the goal of maintaining privacy of individual database entries. In such a database, a query consists of a pair (S, f) where S is a set of rows in the database and f is a function mapping ..."
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Cited by 223 (35 self)
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We consider a statistical database in which a trusted administrator introduces noise to the query responses with the goal of maintaining privacy of individual database entries. In such a database, a query consists of a pair (S, f) where S is a set of rows in the database and f is a function mapping
Consequences
, 2007
"... Vitamin C is an essential component of the human diet. Uptake of vitamin C in the cell is regulated by the function of sodiumdependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs). SVCT1 (encoded by the SLC23A1 gene) is expressed in the colon, liver and kidney, where it plays a vital role in determining vitamin ..."
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C levels in the body. Despite the importance of SVCT1 in vitamin C homeostasis, little is known about its genetic regulation. We isolated a 1239basepair fragment of the SLC23A1 5’flanking sequence from HepG2 cells for the construction of a reporter gene assay. Deletion analysis attributed all
Transverse measures, the modular class, and a cohomology pairing for Lie algebroids
, 1996
"... We show that every Lie algebroid A over a manifold P has a natural representation on the line bundle QA = ∧ top A ⊗ ∧ top T ∗ P. The line bundle QA may be viewed as the Lie algebroid analog of the orientation bundle in topology, and sections of QA may be viewed as transverse measures to A. As a co ..."
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Cited by 123 (10 self)
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consequence, there is a welldefined class in the first Lie algebroid cohomology H 1 (A) called the modular class of the Lie algebroid A. This is the same as the one introduced earlier by Weinstein using the Poisson structure on A ∗. We show that there is a natural pairing between the Lie algebroid cohomology
An Application Level Video Gateway
, 1995
"... The current model for multicast transmission of video over the Internet assumes that a fixed average bandwidth is uniformly present throughout the network. Consequently, sources limit their transmission rates to accommodate the lowest bandwidth links, even though highbandwidth connectivity might be ..."
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Cited by 175 (4 self)
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The current model for multicast transmission of video over the Internet assumes that a fixed average bandwidth is uniformly present throughout the network. Consequently, sources limit their transmission rates to accommodate the lowest bandwidth links, even though highbandwidth connectivity might
Some Consequences of Cryptographical Conjectures for . . .
, 1995
"... We show that there is a pair of disjoint NPsets, whose disjointness is provable in S 1 2 and which cannot be separated by a set in P=poly, if the cryptosystem RSA is secure. Further we show that factoring and the discrete logarithm are implicitly definable in any extension of S 1 2 admittin ..."
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Cited by 70 (14 self)
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We show that there is a pair of disjoint NPsets, whose disjointness is provable in S 1 2 and which cannot be separated by a set in P=poly, if the cryptosystem RSA is secure. Further we show that factoring and the discrete logarithm are implicitly definable in any extension of S 1 2
Minimal EdgeCoverings of Pairs of Sets
, 1995
"... A new minmax theorem concerning bisupermodular functions on pairs of sets is proved. As a special case, we derive an extension of (A. Lubiw's extension of) E. Györi's theorem on intervals, W. Mader's theorem on splitting off edges in directed graphs, J. Edmonds' theorem on matr ..."
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Cited by 68 (15 self)
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A new minmax theorem concerning bisupermodular functions on pairs of sets is proved. As a special case, we derive an extension of (A. Lubiw's extension of) E. Györi's theorem on intervals, W. Mader's theorem on splitting off edges in directed graphs, J. Edmonds' theorem
Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward,
 Annu. Rev. Psychol.
, 2006
"... ■ Abstract The functions of rewards are based primarily on their effects on behavior and are less directly governed by the physics and chemistry of input events as in sensory systems. Therefore, the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying reward functions requires behavioral theories that can ..."
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Cited by 187 (0 self)
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the frequency of the behavior that results in reward. In Pavlovian, or classical, conditioning, the outcome follows the conditioned stimulus (CS) irrespective of any behavioral reaction, and repeated pairing of stimuli with outcomes leads to a representation of the outcome that is evoked by the stimulus
Results 1  10
of
3,384