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3,780,610
Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11807 (17 self)
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situations, applications to grouped, censored or truncated data, finite mixture models, variance component estimation, hyperparameter estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares and factor analysis.
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null
Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research
 Psychological Methods
, 1999
"... Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of ..."
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Cited by 495 (4 self)
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Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each
Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors c ..."
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Cited by 538 (29 self)
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of the number of factors for configurations of the panel data encountered in practice. The idea that variations in a large number of economic variables can be modelled bya small number of reference variables is appealing and is used in manyeconomic analysis. In the finance literature, the arbitrage pricing
Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5350 (67 self)
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In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a
Indexing by latent semantic analysis
 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE
, 1990
"... A new method for automatic indexing and retrieval is described. The approach is to take advantage of implicit higherorder structure in the association of terms with documents (“semantic structure”) in order to improve the detection of relevant documents on the basis of terms found in queries. The p ..."
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Cited by 3723 (35 self)
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. The particular technique used is singularvalue decomposition, in which a large term by document matrix is decomposed into a set of ca. 100 orthogonal factors from which the original matrix can be approximated by linear combination. Documents are represented by ca. 100 item vectors of factor weights. Queries
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1999
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of paramet ..."
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Cited by 703 (5 self)
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of parameters in a latent variable model closely related to factor analysis. We consider the properties of the associated likelihood function, giving an EM algorithm for estimating the principal subspace iteratively, and discuss, with illustrative examples, the advantages conveyed by this probabilistic approach
Survey on Independent Component Analysis
 NEURAL COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
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Cited by 2241 (104 self)
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of the original data. Wellknown linear transformation methods include, for example, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. A recently developed linear transformation method is independent component analysis (ICA), in which the desired representation is the one that minimizes
Factoring wavelet transforms into lifting steps
 J. Fourier Anal. Appl
, 1998
"... ABSTRACT. This paper is essentially tutorial in nature. We show how any discrete wavelet transform or two band subband filtering with finite filters can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps, which we call lifting steps but that are also known as ladder structures. This dec ..."
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Cited by 573 (8 self)
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. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of the polyphase matrix of the wavelet or subband filters into elementary matrices. That such a factorization is possible is wellknown to algebraists (and expressed by the formula); it is also used in linear systems theory in the electrical engineering community. We
Algorithms for Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
 In NIPS
, 2001
"... Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has previously been shown to be a useful decomposition for multivariate data. Two different multiplicative algorithms for NMF are analyzed. They differ only slightly in the multiplicative factor used in the update rules. One algorithm can be shown to minim ..."
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Cited by 1230 (5 self)
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Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has previously been shown to be a useful decomposition for multivariate data. Two different multiplicative algorithms for NMF are analyzed. They differ only slightly in the multiplicative factor used in the update rules. One algorithm can be shown
Results 1  10
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3,780,610