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The tragedy of the commons
 Science
, 1968
"... At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: “Both sides in the arms race are... confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this d ..."
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Cited by 2414 (0 self)
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that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.” I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind
Knowledge and Common Knowledge in a Distributed Environment
 Journal of the ACM
, 1984
"... : Reasoning about knowledge seems to play a fundamental role in distributed systems. Indeed, such reasoning is a central part of the informal intuitive arguments used in the design of distributed protocols. Communication in a distributed system can be viewed as the act of transforming the system&apo ..."
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Cited by 577 (55 self)
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corresponds to knowledge that is "distributed" among the members of the group, while common knowledge corresponds to a fact being "publicly known". The relationship between common knowledge and a variety of desirable actions in a distributed system is illustrated. Furthermore, it is shown
The Nash Bargaining Solution in Economic Modeling
 Rand Journal of Economics
, 1986
"... This article establishes the relationship between the static axiomatic theory of bargaining and the sequential strategic approach to bargaining. We consider two strategic models of alternating offers. The models differ in the source of the incentive of the bargaining parties to reach agreement: the ..."
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Cited by 556 (1 self)
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: the bargainers ' time preference and the risk of breakdown of negotiation. Each of the models has a unique perfect equilibrium. When the motivation to reach agreement is made negligible, in each model the unique perfect equilibrium outcome approaches the Nash bargaining solution, with utilities that reflect
Applications Of Circumscription To Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1986
"... We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects o ..."
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Cited by 536 (12 self)
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We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects
Gravity with Gravitas: a Solution to the Border Puzzle
, 2001
"... Gravity equations have been widely used to infer trade ow effects of various institutional arrangements. We show that estimated gravity equations do not have a theoretical foundation. This implies both that estimation suffers from omitted variables bias and that comparative statics analysis is unfo ..."
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Cited by 610 (3 self)
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Gravity equations have been widely used to infer trade ow effects of various institutional arrangements. We show that estimated gravity equations do not have a theoretical foundation. This implies both that estimation suffers from omitted variables bias and that comparative statics analysis is unfounded. We develop a method that (i) consistently and ef ciently estimates a theoretical gravity equation and (ii) correctly calculates the comparative statics of trade frictions. We apply the method to solve the famous McCallum border puzzle. Applying our method, we nd that national borders reduce trade between industrialized countries by moderate amounts of 20–50 percent.
Very simple classification rules perform well on most commonly used datasets
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machin ..."
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Cited by 542 (5 self)
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The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machine learning community. There are in the literature some indications that very simple rules may achieve surprisingly high accuracy on many datasets. For example, Rendell occasionally remarks that many real world datasets have "few peaks (often just one) " and so are "easy to learn" (Rendell & Seshu, 1990, p.256). Similarly, Shavlik et al. (1991) report that, with certain qualifications, "the accuracy of the perceptron is hardly distinguishable from the more complicated learning algorithms " (p.134). Further evidence is provided by studies of pruning methods (e.g. Buntine & Niblett, 1992; Clark & Niblett, 1989; Mingers, 1989), where accuracy is rarely seen to decrease as pruning becomes more severe (for example, see Table 1) 1. This is so even when rules are pruned to the extreme, as happened with the "Errcomp " pruning method in Mingers (1989). This method produced the most accurate decision trees, and in four of the five domains studied these trees had only 2 or 3 leaves
Testing for Common Trends
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1988
"... Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix ..."
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Cited by 455 (7 self)
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Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient
A solution to Plato’s problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge
 PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
, 1997
"... How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LS ..."
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Cited by 1772 (10 self)
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How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LSA), is presented and used to successfully simulate such learning and several other psycholinguistic phenomena. By inducing global knowledge indirectly from local cooccurrence data in a large body of representative text, LSA acquired knowledge about the full vocabulary of English at a comparable rate to schoolchildren. LSA uses no prior linguistic or perceptual similarity knowledge; it is based solely on a general mathematical learning method that achieves powerful inductive effects by extracting the right number of dimensions (e.g., 300) to represent objects and contexts. Relations to other theories, phenomena, and problems are sketched.
A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms
 Foundations of Genetic Algorithms
, 1991
"... This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or d ..."
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Cited by 512 (32 self)
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This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference
The Advantages of Evolutionary Computation
, 1997
"... Evolutionary computation is becoming common in the solution of difficult, realworld problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific ..."
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Cited by 536 (6 self)
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Evolutionary computation is becoming common in the solution of difficult, realworld problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific
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