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48,061
Common Risk Factors in the Returns On Stocks And Bonds
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1993
"... This paper identities five common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds. There are three stockmarket factors: an overall market factor and factors related to firm size and booktomarket equity. There are two bondmarket factors. related to maturity and default risks. Stock returns have s ..."
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Cited by 2237 (33 self)
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This paper identities five common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds. There are three stockmarket factors: an overall market factor and factors related to firm size and booktomarket equity. There are two bondmarket factors. related to maturity and default risks. Stock returns have
The struggle to govern the commons
 Science
, 2003
"... Human institutions—ways of organizing activities—affect the resilience of the environment. Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable communities and buffered from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries, although they often fail when rapid change occu ..."
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Cited by 661 (17 self)
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parties, officials, and scientists; complex, redundant, and layered institutions; a mix of institutional types; and designs that facilitate experimentation, learning, and change. In 1968, Hardin (1) drew attention to two human factors that drive environmental change. The first factor is the increasing de
The relationship between return and market value of common stocks
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1981
"... This study examines the empirical relattonship between the return and the total market value of NYSE common stocks. It is found that smaller firms have had htgher risk adjusted returns, on average, than larger lirms. This ‘size effect ’ has been in existence for at least forty years and is evidence ..."
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Cited by 791 (0 self)
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This study examines the empirical relattonship between the return and the total market value of NYSE common stocks. It is found that smaller firms have had htgher risk adjusted returns, on average, than larger lirms. This ‘size effect ’ has been in existence for at least forty years and is evidence
Factoring polynomials with rational coefficients
 MATH. ANN
, 1982
"... In this paper we present a polynomialtime algorithm to solve the following problem: given a nonzero polynomial fe Q[X] in one variable with rational coefficients, find the decomposition of f into irreducible factors in Q[X]. It is well known that this is equivalent to factoring primitive polynomia ..."
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Cited by 961 (11 self)
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polynomials feZ[X] into irreducible factors in Z[X]. Here we call f ~ Z[X] primitive if the greatest common divisor of its coefficients (the content of f) is 1. Our algorithm performs well in practice, cf. [8]. Its running time, measured in bit operations, is O(nl2+n9(log[fD3). Here f~Tl[X] is the polynomial
FAST VOLUME RENDERING USING A SHEARWARP FACTORIZATION OF THE VIEWING TRANSFORMATION
, 1995
"... Volume rendering is a technique for visualizing 3D arrays of sampled data. It has applications in areas such as medical imaging and scientific visualization, but its use has been limited by its high computational expense. Early implementations of volume rendering used bruteforce techniques that req ..."
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Cited by 542 (2 self)
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family of volume rendering algorithms that reduces rendering times to one second. First we present a scanlineorder volume rendering algorithm that exploits coherence in both the volume data and the image. We show that scanlineorder algorithms are fundamentally more efficient than commonlyused ray
The many faces of Publish/Subscribe
, 2003
"... This paper factors out the common denominator underlying these variants: full decoupling of the communicating entities in time, space, and synchronization. We use these three decoupling dimensions to better identify commonalities and divergences with traditional interaction paradigms. The many v ..."
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Cited by 743 (23 self)
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This paper factors out the common denominator underlying these variants: full decoupling of the communicating entities in time, space, and synchronization. We use these three decoupling dimensions to better identify commonalities and divergences with traditional interaction paradigms. The many
Survey on Independent Component Analysis
 NEURAL COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
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Cited by 2309 (104 self)
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A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation
Free Riding on Gnutella
, 2000
"... this paper, Gnutella is no exception to this finding, and an experimental study of its user patterns shows indeed that free riding is the norm rather than the exception. If distributed systems such as Gnutella rely on voluntary cooperation, rampant free riding may eventually render them useless, as ..."
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Cited by 614 (2 self)
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, as few individuals will contribute anything that is new and high quality. Thus, the current debate over copyright might become a nonissue when compared to the possible collapse of such systems. This collapse can happen because of two factors, the tragedy of the digital commons, and increased system
Have Individual Stocks Become More Volatile? An Empirical Exploration of Idiosyncratic Risk
 THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE • VOL. LVI
, 2001
"... This paper uses a disaggregated approach to study the volatility of common stocks at the market, industry, and firm levels. Over the period 1962–1997 there has been a noticeable increase in firmlevel volatility relative to market volatility. Accordingly, correlations among individual stocks and the ..."
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Cited by 526 (18 self)
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This paper uses a disaggregated approach to study the volatility of common stocks at the market, industry, and firm levels. Over the period 1962–1997 there has been a noticeable increase in firmlevel volatility relative to market volatility. Accordingly, correlations among individual stocks
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