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Distributed Database Systems
"... this article, we discuss the fundamentals of distributed DBMS technology. We address the data distribution and architectural design issues as well as the algorithms that need to be implemented to provide the basic DBMS functions such as query processing, concurrency control, reliability, and replica ..."
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Cited by 586 (26 self)
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this article, we discuss the fundamentals of distributed DBMS technology. We address the data distribution and architectural design issues as well as the algorithms that need to be implemented to provide the basic DBMS functions such as query processing, concurrency control, reliability
Functions and their basic properties
 JOURNAL OF FORMALIZED MATHEMATICS
, 2003
"... The definitions of the mode Function and the graph of a function are introduced. The graph of a function is defined to be identical with the function. The following concepts are also defined: the domain of a function, the range of a function, the identity function, the composition of functions, the ..."
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Cited by 1344 (32 self)
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, the 11 function, the inverse function, the restriction of a function, the image and the inverse image. Certain basic facts about functions and the notions defined in the article are proved.
Relations and their basic properties
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. We define here: mode Relation as a set of pairs, the domain, the codomain, and the field of relation; the empty and the identity relations, the composition of relations, the image and the inverse image of a set under a relation. Two predicates, = and ⊆, and three functions, ∪, ∩ and \ are ..."
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Cited by 1069 (6 self)
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Summary. We define here: mode Relation as a set of pairs, the domain, the codomain, and the field of relation; the empty and the identity relations, the composition of relations, the image and the inverse image of a set under a relation. Two predicates, = and ⊆, and three functions
Basic objects in natural categories
 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
, 1976
"... Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic category cuts are made. Basic categories are those which carry the most information, possess the highest categ ..."
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Cited by 856 (1 self)
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Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic category cuts are made. Basic categories are those which carry the most information, possess the highest
Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing
 IEEE TDSC
, 2004
"... This paper gives the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including as special case such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and integrity. Basic defin ..."
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Cited by 758 (6 self)
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This paper gives the main definitions relating to dependability, a generic concept including as special case such attributes as reliability, availability, safety, integrity, maintainability, etc. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and integrity. Basic
Optimization Flow Control, I: Basic Algorithm and Convergence
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1999
"... We propose an optimization approach to flow control where the objective is to maximize the aggregate source utility over their transmission rates. We view network links and sources as processors of a distributed computation system to solve the dual problem using gradient projection algorithm. In thi ..."
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Cited by 690 (64 self)
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We propose an optimization approach to flow control where the objective is to maximize the aggregate source utility over their transmission rates. We view network links and sources as processors of a distributed computation system to solve the dual problem using gradient projection algorithm. In this system sources select transmission rates that maximize their own benefits, utility minus bandwidth cost, and network links adjust bandwidth prices to coordinate the sources' decisions. We allow feedback delays to be different, substantial and timevarying, and links and sources to update at different times and with different frequencies. We provide asynchronous distributed algorithms and prove their convergence in a static environment. We present measurements obtained from a preliminary prototype to illustrate the convergence of the algorithm in a slowly timevarying environment.
Apoptosis: a Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wideranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
 Br. J. Cancer
, 1972
"... Summary.The term apoptosis is proposed for a hitherto little recognized mechanism of controlled cell deletion, which appears to play a complementary but opposite role to mitosis in the regulation of animal cell populations. Its morphological features suggest that it is an active, inherently program ..."
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Cited by 612 (6 self)
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Summary.The term apoptosis is proposed for a hitherto little recognized mechanism of controlled cell deletion, which appears to play a complementary but opposite role to mitosis in the regulation of animal cell populations. Its morphological features suggest that it is an active, inherently programmed phenomenon, and it has been shown that it can be initiated or inhibited by a variety of environmental stimuli, both physiological and pathological. The structural changes take place in two discrete stages. The first comprises nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation and breaking up of the cell into a number of membranebound, ultrastructurally wellpreserved fragments. In the second stage these apoptotic bodies are shed from epitheliallined surfaces or are taken up by other cells, where they undergo a series of changes resembling in vitro autolysis within phagosomes, and are rapidly degraded by lysosomal enzymes derived from the ingesting cells. Apoptosis seems to be involved in cell turnover in many healthy adult tissues and is responsible for focal elimination of cells during normal embryonic development. It occurs spontaneously in untreated malignant neoplasms, and participates in at least some types of therapeutically induced tumour regression. It is implicated in both physiological involution and atrophy of various tissues and organs. It can also be triggered by noxious agents, both in the embryo and adult animal. IN recent years it has become widely recognized that spontaneous loss of cells is an important parameter in neoplastic
Functions from a set to a set
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... function from a set X into a set Y, denoted by “Function of X,Y ”, the set of all functions from a set X into a set Y, denoted by Funcs(X,Y), and the permutation of a set (mode Permutation of X, where X is a set). Theorems and schemes included in the article are reformulations of the theorems of [1] ..."
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Cited by 1094 (23 self)
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] in the new terminology. Also some basic facts about functions of two variables are proved.
Monads for functional programming
, 1995
"... The use of monads to structure functional programs is described. Monads provide a convenient framework for simulating effects found in other languages, such as global state, exception handling, output, or nondeterminism. Three case studies are looked at in detail: how monads ease the modification o ..."
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Cited by 1481 (39 self)
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The use of monads to structure functional programs is described. Monads provide a convenient framework for simulating effects found in other languages, such as global state, exception handling, output, or nondeterminism. Three case studies are looked at in detail: how monads ease the modification
The Plenoptic Function and the Elements of Early Vision
 Computational Models of Visual Processing
, 1991
"... experiment. Electrophysiologists have described neurons in striate cortex that are selectively sensitive to certain visual properties; for reviews, see Hubel (1988) and DeValois and DeValois (1988). Psychophysicists have inferred the existence of channels that are tuned for certain visual properties ..."
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Cited by 573 (4 self)
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experiment. Electrophysiologists have described neurons in striate cortex that are selectively sensitive to certain visual properties; for reviews, see Hubel (1988) and DeValois and DeValois (1988). Psychophysicists have inferred the existence of channels that are tuned for certain visual properties; for reviews, see Graham (1989), Olzak and Thomas (1986), Pokorny and Smith (1986), and Watson (1986). Researchers in perception have found aspects of visual stimuli that are processed preattentively (Beck, 1966; Bergen & Julesz, 1983; Julesz & Bergen, Motion Color Binocular disparity Retinal processing Early vision Memory Higherlevel vision Etc... Retina More processing Still more processing Orientation Fig.1.1 A generic diagram for visual processing. In this approach, early vision consists of a set of parallel pathways, each analyzing some particular aspect of the visual stimulus. 1983; Treisman, 1986; Treisman & Gelade, 1980). And in computational
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