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207,480
Ant Colony System: A cooperative learning approach to the traveling salesman problem
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1997
"... This paper introduces the ant colony system (ACS), a distributed algorithm that is applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In the ACS, a set of cooperating agents called ants cooperate to find good solutions to TSP’s. Ants cooperate using an indirect form of communication mediated by a pher ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1000 (53 self)
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ACS3opt, a version of the ACS augmented with a local search procedure, to some of the best performing algorithms for symmetric and asymmetric TSP’s.
The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART B
, 1996
"... An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call Ant System. We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation ..."
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Cited by 1241 (45 self)
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methodology to the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), and report simulation results. We also discuss parameter selection and the early setups of the model, and compare it with tabu search and simulated annealing using TSP. To demonstrate the robustness of the approach, we show how the Ant System (AS
TreadMarks: Distributed Shared Memory on Standard Workstations and Operating Systems
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1994 WINTER USENIX CONFERENCE
, 1994
"... TreadMarks is a distributed shared memory (DSM) system for standard Unix systems such as SunOS and Ultrix. This paper presents a performance evaluation of TreadMarks running on Ultrix using DECstation5000/240's that are connected by a 100Mbps switchbased ATM LAN and a 10Mbps Ethernet. Ou ..."
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Cited by 527 (17 self)
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. Our objective is to determine the efficiency of a userlevel DSM implementation on commercially available workstations and operating systems. We achieved good speedups on the 8processor ATM network for Jacobi (7.4), TSP (7.2), Quicksort (6.3), and ILINK (5.7). For a slightly modified version
• Asymmetric TSP
, 1152
"... This is a short summary of recent improvements on the explicit inapproximability bounds for the instances of metric TSP. It aims at keeping track of the best known explicit bounds for that problem as well as new techniques for proving them. All explicit inapproximability bounds are under the usual c ..."
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This is a short summary of recent improvements on the explicit inapproximability bounds for the instances of metric TSP. It aims at keeping track of the best known explicit bounds for that problem as well as new techniques for proving them. All explicit inapproximability bounds are under the usual
Costly search and mutual fund flows
 Journal of Finance
, 1998
"... This paper studies the flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds. Consumers base their fund purchase decisions on prior performance information, but do so asymmetrically, investing disproportionately more in funds that performed very well the prior period. Search costs seem to be an importa ..."
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Cited by 511 (5 self)
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This paper studies the flows of funds into and out of equity mutual funds. Consumers base their fund purchase decisions on prior performance information, but do so asymmetrically, investing disproportionately more in funds that performed very well the prior period. Search costs seem
A learning algorithm for Boltzmann machines
 Cognitive Science
, 1985
"... The computotionol power of massively parallel networks of simple processing elements resides in the communication bandwidth provided by the hardware connections between elements. These connections con allow a significant fraction of the knowledge of the system to be applied to an instance of a probl ..."
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Cited by 586 (13 self)
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The computotionol power of massively parallel networks of simple processing elements resides in the communication bandwidth provided by the hardware connections between elements. These connections con allow a significant fraction of the knowledge of the system to be applied to an instance of a
Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research
 Review of Educational Research
, 1975
"... Despite the very extensive literature on dropout from higher education, much remains unknown about the nature of the dropout process. In large measure, the failure of past research to delineate more clearly the multiple characteristics of dropout can be traced to two major shortcomings; namely, inad ..."
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Cited by 755 (2 self)
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researchers to lump together, under the rubric of dropout, forms of leaving behavior that are very different in character. It is not uncommon to find, for instance, research on dropout that fails to distinguish dropout resulting from academic failure from that which is the outcome of voluntary withdrawal
The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
 Dev. Biol
, 1983
"... The number of nongonadal nuclei in the freeliving soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increases from about 550 in the newly hatched larva to about 810 in the mature hermaphrodite and to about 970 in the mature male. The pattern of cell divisions which leads to this increase is essentially invarian ..."
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Cited by 503 (16 self)
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. Frequently, several blast cells follow the same asymmetric program of divisions; lineally equivalent progeny of such cells generally differentiate into functionally equivalent cells. We have determined these cell lineages by direct observation of the divisions, migrations, and deaths of individual cells
Polynomial time approximation schemes for Euclidean TSP and other geometric problems
 In Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS’96
, 1996
"... Abstract. We present a polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean TSP in fixed dimensions. For every fixed c � 1 and given any n nodes in � 2, a randomized version of the scheme finds a (1 � 1/c)approximation to the optimum traveling salesman tour in O(n(log n) O(c) ) time. When the nodes a ..."
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Cited by 399 (3 self)
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Abstract. We present a polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean TSP in fixed dimensions. For every fixed c � 1 and given any n nodes in � 2, a randomized version of the scheme finds a (1 � 1/c)approximation to the optimum traveling salesman tour in O(n(log n) O(c) ) time. When the nodes
Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 681 (1 self)
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It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard problems occur at a critical value of such a parameter. This critical value separates two regions of characteristically different properties. For example, for Kcolorability, the critical value separates overconstrained from underconstrained random graphs, and it marks the value at which the probability of a solution changes abruptly from near 0 to near 1. It is the high density of wellseparated almost solutions (local minima) at this boundary that cause search algorithms to "thrash". This boundary is a type of phase transition and we show that it is preserved under mappings between problems. We show that for some P problems either there is no phase transition or it occurs for bounded N (and so bound...
Results 1  10
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207,480