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A MetaAnalytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
"... A metaanalysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagementcontingent, completioncontingent, and performancecontingent rewards significantly undermined freechoice intrinsic motivation (d =0.40,0.36, and0.28, respectively), as did ..."
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Cited by 664 (18 self)
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this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones. By 1971, hundreds of studies within the operant tradition (Skinner, 1953) had established that extrinsic rewards can control behavior. When administered closely subsequent to a behavior, rewards were reliably found
Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wireless Sensor Networks
, 2004
"... We propose BMAC, a carrier sense media access protocol for wireless sensor networks that provides a flexible interface to obtain ultra low power operation, effective collision avoidance, and high channel utilization. To achieve low power operation, BMAC employs an adaptive preamble sampling scheme ..."
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Cited by 1099 (19 self)
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We propose BMAC, a carrier sense media access protocol for wireless sensor networks that provides a flexible interface to obtain ultra low power operation, effective collision avoidance, and high channel utilization. To achieve low power operation, BMAC employs an adaptive preamble sampling
The SmallWorld Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective
 in Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... Long a matter of folklore, the “smallworld phenomenon ” — the principle that we are all linked by short chains of acquaintances — was inaugurated as an area of experimental study in the social sciences through the pioneering work of Stanley Milgram in the 1960’s. This work was among the first to m ..."
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Cited by 824 (5 self)
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to make the phenomenon quantitative, allowing people to speak of the “six degrees of separation ” between any two people in the United States. Since then, a number of network models have been proposed as frameworks in which to study the problem analytically. One of the most refined of these models
Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives.
 Developmental Psychology,
, 1986
"... This review collates and examines critically a theoretically convergent but widely dispersed body of research on the influence of external environments on the functioning of families as contexts of human development. Investigations falling within this expanding domain include studies of the interac ..."
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Cited by 518 (0 self)
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of this fact, it was not until relatively recently that students of development began to employ research designs that could identify the influences operating, in both directions, between the principal settings in which human development occurs. The term mesosystem has been use to characterize analytic models
RELATIVE LATTICES OF CERTAIN ANALYTIC OPERATOR ALGEBRAS
"... Abstract. In this note, We prove that the relative invariant subspace lattices of a finite subdiagonal algebra A with respect to a faithful normal expectation Φ and of an analytic operator algebra H∞(α) determined by a flow α are commutative. 1. ..."
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Abstract. In this note, We prove that the relative invariant subspace lattices of a finite subdiagonal algebra A with respect to a faithful normal expectation Φ and of an analytic operator algebra H∞(α) determined by a flow α are commutative. 1.
NONCOMMUTATIVE MARKOV CHAINS AND MULTIANALYTIC OPERATORS
, 902
"... Abstract. We study a model of repeated interaction between quantum systems which can be thought of as a noncommutative Markov chain. It is shown that there exists an outgoing Cuntz scattering system associated to this model which induces an inputoutput formalism with a transfer function correspond ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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corresponding to a multianalytic operator, in the sense of multivariate operator theory. Finally we show that observability for this system is closely related to the scattering theory of noncommutative Markov chains. 1.
Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE 802.11 Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 2000
"... In wireless LANs (WLANs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is the main element that determines the efficiency in sharing the limited communication bandwidth of the wireless channel. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the IEEE 802.11 standard for WLANs. Specifically, we analytically ..."
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Cited by 445 (13 self)
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analytically derive the average size of the contention window that maximizes the throughput, hereafter theoretical throughput limit, and we show that: 1) depending on the network configuration, the standard can operate very far from the theoretical throughput limit; and 2) an appropriate tuning of the backoff
Implementing Arithmetic and Other Analytic Operations By Transcriptional Regulation
, 2007
"... The transcriptional regulatory machinery of a gene can be viewed as a computational device, with transcription factor concentrations as inputs and expression level as the output. This view begs the question: what kinds of computations are possible? We show that different parameterizations of a simpl ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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simple chemical kinetic model of transcriptional regulation are able to approximate all four standard arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as various equality and inequality operations. This contrasts with other studies that emphasize logical or digital
Random walks for image segmentation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2006
"... A novel method is proposed for performing multilabel, interactive image segmentation. Given a small number of pixels with userdefined (or predefined) labels, one can analytically and quickly determine the probability that a random walker starting at each unlabeled pixel will first reach one of the ..."
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Cited by 387 (21 self)
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A novel method is proposed for performing multilabel, interactive image segmentation. Given a small number of pixels with userdefined (or predefined) labels, one can analytically and quickly determine the probability that a random walker starting at each unlabeled pixel will first reach one
,ANALYTIC OPERATOR FUNCTIONS WITH COMPACT SPECTRUM. I. SPECTRAL NODES, LINEARIZATION AND EQUIVALENCE
"... This paper arose from an attempt to classify analytic operator functions modulo equivalence in terms of their linearizations and to use the linearization as a tool to obtain spectral factorizations. In this first part spectral linearizations and spectral nodes are introduced to provide a general fra ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper arose from an attempt to classify analytic operator functions modulo equivalence in terms of their linearizations and to use the linearization as a tool to obtain spectral factorizations. In this first part spectral linearizations and spectral nodes are introduced to provide a general
Results 1  10
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