### Table 3: Exogenous variables

2001

"... In PAGE 30: ...Figure 14 shows that the fertility rate decreased rapidly between 1960 and 1980, and since then has continued to decline at a slower rate. Table3 summarizes the exogenous variables employed in the model. 5EstimationResults We estimate the model by minimizing the weighted squared deviation between the actual moments obtained from the data and the corresponding simulated moments from the model.... ..."

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### Table 1. Exogenous parameters.

2005

"... In PAGE 5: ...nce LU is zero in Eq. (3). 3. Simulation results To simulate our model, the exogenous parameters are set to the values shown in Table1 , in which a baseline and six alternative scenarios are defined. In the following, besides analyzing the baseline and the different scenarios, we study with special care the possibility for an economy to fall into a poverty trap or else to engage in an over education path.... ..."

### Table la: Endogenous and exogenous

### Table 5 Weak exogeneity tests

"... In PAGE 12: ... This hypothesis can be tested by means of likelihood ratio tests on the adjustment coefficients of each of the three equations in the model (see Johansen (1992), Johansen and Juselius (1992), Urbain (1992), and Boswick (1995)). Results from these tests are reported in Table5 , and they suggest that the US interest rate is exogenous with respect to the cointegrating vector. It is important to note that any evidence pointing to the exogeneity of the exchange rate would be inconsistent with the monetary model, since the adjustment towards equilibrium would not be carried out by the exchange rate.... ..."

### Table 9 Tests of weak exogeneity

"... In PAGE 22: ....e., testing whether A in (13) is equal to a vector of zeros. Likewise, weak exogeneity for all the parameters in the structural equation can be checked by adding to it, as artificial regressors, the residuals from the reduced-form regression just described, and then testing the joint nullity of the coefficients of these artificial regressors in the structural equation, and the coefficients on the cointegrating vector(s) in the marginal equations (Boswijk and Urbain, 1994). These weak exogeneity tests are reported in Table9 . The first two columns report the tests of weak exogeneity for the long-run parameters only, while the third and fourth columns report the tests for the... In PAGE 23: ...each conditioning variable as well as the joint test for all four of them. The statistics are in all cases asymptotically distributed as X2, with degrees of freedom equal to the number of exclusion restrictions being tested (see the notes to Table9 ). As can be seen, the tests provide very little evidence against weak exogeneity, which can be easily accepted in every individual as well as joint test.... ..."

### Table 4 Definition of exogenous and endogenous variables in the model Exogenous variables

2000

### Table 3: Results for the exogeneous approach.

2000

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